Several such entities are discussed in this review, including microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix mimicking well-differentiated endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinoma, reactive epithelial changes in the fallopian tubes mimicking adenocarcinoma or carcinoma in situ, atypical and hyperplastic changes in endometriosis, and pregnancy changes in the ovary including pregnancy luteoma and large solitary luteinized follicular cyst of pregnancy and puerperium.
Two such entities that may be mistaken clinically and pathologically for neoplasms are pregnancy luteoma and solitary luteinized follicle cyst of pregnancy and the puerperium.
Pregnancy luteoma is a benign, hyperplastic lesion that may be mistaken for a neoplasm, thus leading to unnecessary oophorectomy.
They differ from pregnancy luteoma in that they are usually unilateral and solitary, as opposed to the multinodular and bilateral lesions seen in pregnancy luteoma.
Solid nodules with radiologic findings of pregnancy luteoma (solid nodules, multinodularity, and bilaterality) discovered in the second half of pregnancy have been followed clinically.
Pregnancy luteoma presenting as ovarian torsion with rupture and intra-abdominal bleeding.
Macroscopically, pregnancy luteomas are solid masses that may be mistaken for ovarian neoplasms because of this feature.
Pregnancy luteomas are generally thought to arise from nodular hyperplasia of theca interna cells (theca-lutein hyperplasia), (59,67,69) although others (56) have proposed an origin from stromal cells.