A avestruz e uma ave reconhecida como precocial
(DEEMING & AR, 1999) e apresenta cuidado parental por um curto periodo, realizado principalmente pelo macho.
These altricial (less specialized) or precocial
(more specialized) alternatives are caused by differences in the provision of endogenous food (e.
Palila 1996- 45 76 74 (Loxioides bailleui) 2005 Puaiohi 1996- 151 86 77 (Myadestes palmeri) 2005 'Akohekohe 1997 5 100 83 (Palmeria dolei) Hawaii Creeper 1997- 14 89 82 (Oreomystis mana) 2005 Maui Parrotbill 1997- 13 88 87 (Pseudonestor 2005 xanthophrys) 'Apapane 1997 2 100 100 (Himatione sanguinea) Hawaii 'Akepa 1998- 13 90 72 (Loxops coccineus 2005 coccineus) 'Akiapola'au 2001 0 -- -- (Hemignathus munroi) 'Alala 1993- 68 55 85 (Corvus hawaiiensis) 2005 Nene 1998- 276 * 84 95 Branta sandvicensis 2005 Totals 650 80% 86% * Nene goslings are precocial
and unlike the passerine species in this table, are independent at hatch.
Turkeys are precocial
(prih-CO-shul); the newborns develop physically and socially early.
4] reported in this study on glaucous gulls were in the lower end of the corresponding levels reported for other adult precocial
species, whereas the levels of [T.
Brush-turkey chicks are like young fish and reptiles in that they are highly precocial
(advanced at birth) and form no bonds with parents.
Even such precocial
newborns as moose calves need their mother's specific care during the first period of their lives.
Excessive litter reduces productivity of most grass and legume species and may restrict movements within, or emigration from, grassland covers by newly hatched broods of upland nesting ducks (Anas spp), ringnecked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), or other precocial
species whose mobile young abandon the nest soon after hatching.
Development of thermoregulation and hormonal control in Precocial
and altricial birds.
In terms of synchrony, large species in large herds with precocial
young (wildebeest, topi, buffalo) have highly synchronized birth seasons consistent with the "pre dator satiation" hypothesis.
At birth, the precocial
young are well developed and resemble the adults in nearly every detail except size.
Because visual experience has been demonstrated as a powerful prenatal lateralizing influence in other studies of precocial
birds, we hypothesized that prenatal visual experience would also prove to be a significant influence on postnatal motor asymmetry in domestic chicks.