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The process by which homeopathic remedies are prepared. Once the raw material is obtained, it is extracted in alcohol (forming a “mother tincture”), placed in sugar and water, and then reduced in concentration (diluted).

In the homeopathic formulary, each ten-fold reduction is designated by an additional “X” (or, in Europe, a D); thus, 6X is one part of active substance in one million (10-6). A less commonly used system is that of the C dilutions, where each dilution corresponds to 1 part in 100; thus, a 6C solution is that in which there is one active part in one trillion (10-12). The most commonly prescribed homeopathic remedies have potencies of 30X (1/1030) and 200X (1/10200).

It is in the issue of potentisation that mainstream biomedical thought has the greatest difficulty accepting homeopathy as a valid therapeutic system. According to homeopathic principles, remedies with the greatest dilutions have the greatest therapeutic effect, despite the virtual absence of molecules (based on Avogadro’s number) in the remedy. This counterintuitive effect has been explained by D Ullman, a homeopath, who believes that the remedy acquires a holographic imprint, or subtle energetic aspect of the primary substance.

The process by which the oils of petals and heads of flowers used in Bach’s flower remedies are concentrated.