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a chemical element, atomic number 19, atomic weight 39.102, symbol K. See Table 6. In combination with other minerals, potassium forms alkaline salts that are important in body processes and play an essential role in maintenance of its acid-base and water balance. All body cells, especially muscle tissue, require a high content of potassium. A proper balance between sodium, calcium and potassium in the blood plasma is necessary for proper cardiac function. Alfalfa meal, molasses and soyabean meal are good sources for herbivores.
potassium acetate, bicarbonate, bitartrate, citrate, gluconate
electrolyte replenishers, weak diuretics and urinary alkalinizers. Some are also used as expectorants.
see fowler's solution.
used in the treatment of seizures in humans and dogs.
used commercially as a fertilizer.
a compound used orally or intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher.
may be present in industrial effluents. A potent cause of cyanide poisoning.
nutritional deficiency of potassium is very rare. In calves can cause poor growth, anemia and diarrhea. Experimental deficiency in piglets causes also incoordination and cardiac insufficiency.
potassium exchange resins
potassium hydroxide (syn. potassium hydrate)
used commercially as a caustic. In veterinary medicine used mostly for clearing skin scrapings in the diagnosis of ectoparasite infestation.
used as a constituent of salt blocks and mixes to supplement the diet with iodine. Overdosing will cause iodism.
an expectorant and antithyroid agent.
used commercially as a fertilizer and a meat preservative. Can cause nitrate poisoning or nitrite poisoning in ruminants.
a compound sometimes used in place of potassium nitrate. Overdosing causes methemoglobin formation and severe, sometimes fatal hypoxia.
potassium nutritional deficiency
causes poor growth, anemia and diarrhea in pigs and calves. Electrocardiographic changes are also recorded. See also hypokalemia.
causes oxalate poisoning.
a topical anti-infective, oxidizing agent, and antidote for many poisons. See also permanganate.
see sodium pump.
potassium sodium tartrate
a compound used as a saline cathartic and also in combination with sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid (Seidlitz powders, a cathartic).