As CF is a common posttranslational modification
of many glycoproteins, we will explore other glycoproteins involved in peritoneal fibrosis in the future studies to clarify whether they are also affected by the inhibition of CF.
However, during sustained oxidative stress condition, Nrf-2 is profoundly activated, which results in the production of increased reducing equivalents such as GSH, which then indulges in posttranslational modification
of critical proteins in cardiomyocyte function, whereby affecting their structure and function.
Among the epigenome which is defined by DNA methylation patterns and the associated posttranslational modifications
of histories and non histone proteins is the key regulatory circuit (2).
Accordingly, S-nitrosylation and sulfhydration of sulphur amino acid cysteine seem to be crucial protein posttranslational modifications
for reproductive processes and their understanding brings relevant possibilities for ART.
It has the limitations of being transparent to proteins that don't contain cysteine (around 8% of all proteins) and that posttranslational modifications
are likely to be missed.
Oxidative or nitrosative stress may not only alter levels of mitochondrial proteins, but also induce posttranslational modifications
Glycomic studies may reveal glycan changes and provide novel avenues for understanding alcohol's actions, especially on posttranslational modifications
The highest priorities recommended by the workshop were to support studies of structure, analysis, control, and design of conformational and functional states at molecular resolution for environmentally responsive molecules and complexes; promote understanding of dynamics, kinetics, and ligand responses; investigate the mechanisms and steps in posttranslational modifications
, protein partnering, impact of genetic polymorphisms on structure/function, and ligand interactions; and encourage integrated experimental and computational approaches.
Recently, mass spectrometers have become faster and more sensitive, and they can generate tremendous amounts of information related to protein primary structure, posttranslational modifications
, splice variants, mutants, etc.
Experimental studies revealed numerous homocysteine effects relevant to the pathogenesis of vascular disease, including induction of endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of biological methylation through accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine, homocysteinylation and posttranslational modification
of proteins, increased oxidant stress, and decreased availability of nitric oxide (1).
The molecular heterogeneity of the propeptides has proved to be complex, and cardiac biosynthesis involves both endoproteolytic cleavage and posttranslational modification
Whether O-linked glycosylation is an "unlimited" posttranslational modification
or is affected by increased BNP gene expression, as in heart disease, is an important question for future studies.