This procedure estimates the average transit time of a ribosome on an mRNA transcript by following the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids from nascent peptides in the polysome pool to completed peptides in the soluble protein pool (details in Brandis and Raff, 1978, 1979; Hille and Albers, 1979).
After fertilization there was a large recruitment of ribosomes into polysome structures (peak labeled as "polyribosome fraction" in Fig.
The biotechnology firm is focused on the use of polysome
methods to isolate molecules that bind specific targets and to engineer proteins for improved or novel activities.
Moreover, RER cisternae extended into the apical cytoplasm and polysomes
and small dense coated vesicles were observed (Figs.
Klein and Pollock (1968) observed that polysomes
disappeared and ribosomes appeared free in cell cytoplasm of embryo axes of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.
In vivo pulse chase studies have shown a rapid rate of synthesis of filament binding proteins and actin monomers by cytosolic polysomes
which were incorporated in to microvilli (Cowell and Danielsen, 1984; Danielsen et al.
Ribosomes are numerous, and are found dispersed throughout the cell, associated with polysomes
dispersed in the cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and covering clear cytoplasmic vesicles (Figs.
15] members) can be generated with even more ease by biological techniques such as error prone PCR, DNA shuffling, polysomes
, and phage display.
A long chain of AMP residues seems to enhance its translatability by helping recruit mRNA to polysomes
, thereby promoting initiation of translation.
These terminals contain conspicuous aggregates of polysomes
and are responsible for essentially all the protein synthetic activity of optic lobe synaptosomes.
These features indicate that the active particles are surrounded by a plasma membrane enclosing eukaryotic polysomes
and the soluble factors required for protein synthesis.
These features are indicative of extramitochondrial polysomes
enclosed by a plasma membrane.