Betterle C, Lazzarotto F, Presotto F: Autoimmune polyglandular
syndrome Type 2: the tip of an iceberg?
The association of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, adrenal insufficiency and hypoparathyroidism as components of the autoimmune polyglandular
syndrome type 1 (APS-I) or autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is well recognized.
Affecting women more often than men, autoimmune polyglandular
syndrome type 2 is a polygenic disorder with onset in childhood or early adulthood; it is characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency or adrenal autoantibodies plus either autoimmune thyroid disease or type 1 diabetes (4).
Although we failed to uncover such an antibody in our patient, similar negative findings have been reported in 73 patients with autoimmune polyglandular
syndrome 1 with hypoparathyroidism.
Addisonian crisis precipitated by thyroxine therapy: a complication of type 2 autoimmune polyglandular
As many as 40% of patients with idiopathic Addison's disease may exhibit polyglandular
endocrine syndromes in which immunologic tissue injuries occur in the thyroid, parathyroid, ovary, pancreas, and skin.
To the Editor: In reading the article "Addisonian Crisis Precipitated by Thyroxine Therapy: A Complication of Type 2 Autoimmune Polyglandular
Syndrome," (1) I was reminded of Dr.
VKH syndrome is also associated with other autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune polyglandular
syndrome type 1, (1) hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus, (2) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
The highest risk for polyglandular
failure exists in patients with autoimmune adrenal failure and individuals with a family history of polyglandular