Currently, add the researchers, podophyllotoxin
is produced commercially using the roots and rhizomes of Indian mayapple, the endangered species harvested from the wild in India, Pakistan, Nepal, and China.
emodi is prized for its podophyllotoxin
, which is used as the starting material for producing the antitumor agent etoposide," says Agricultural Research Service plant physiologist Camilo Canel.
It can be speculated that compounds revealing comparably high cytotoxicity than podophyllotoxin
such as deoxypodophyllotoxin or austrobailignan-1 might also be too toxic for use in cancer therapy.
The pharmacokinetic characteristics of teniposide differ from those of etoposide, another podophyllotoxin
producing Fusarium oxysporum from Sinopodophyllum (Kour et al.
Several workers have reported the use of endophytes for the production of pacitaxel, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin
, hypericin, and gentiopicrin isolated from the hosts Taxus cuspidata, Nothapodytes foe tida/Campto theca acuminata, Podophyllum peltatum, Hypericum perforatum, and Gentiana macrophylia, respectively, although there are no reports of successful industrial scale-ups (Zhao et al.
The search for anti-cancer drugs from plant sources started in the 1950s, with the discovery of the vinca alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine) and podophyllotoxin
Activity of a new glycosidic lignan derivative (VP16-213) related to podophyllotoxin
in experimental tumors.
hexandrum are reported to contain lignans such as podophyllotoxin
, 4-demethylpodophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxone, podophyllotoxin
glycoside, 4-demethylpodophyllotoxone, deoxypodophyllotoxin, dehydropodophyllotoxin,and other aryl tetrahydronaphthalene lignans (Singh and Shah, 1994; Wong et al.
Benznidazole, melarsoprol, miltefosin and podophyllotoxin
were used as positive controls.
The cytotoxic potentials of the extracts on rat skeletal myoblast (L6) cells were also assessed and compared to that of podophyllotoxin
In order to determine the selectivity, the extracts were also tested on rat skeletal myoblasts (L6 cells) by using podophyllotoxin
as positive control (Table 1).