pneumomediastinum


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pneumomediastinum

 [noo″mo-me″de-as-ti´num]
the presence of air or gas in the mediastinum, which may interfere with respiration and circulation, and may lead to such conditions as pneumothorax or pneumopericardium. It may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathologic process, or it may be induced deliberately as a diagnostic procedure.

pneu·mo·me·di·as·ti·num

(nū'mō-mē'dē-ă-stī'nŭm),
Abnormal presence of air in mediastinal tissues; multiple causes include pulmonary interstitial emphysema, ruptured bleb, perforation of the cervical or thoracic esophagus or airways, cervicomediastinal infection, and perforated abdominal viscus.
[G. pneuma, air, + mediastinum]

pneumomediastinum

/pneu·mo·me·di·as·ti·num/ (-me″de-as-ti´num) air or gas in the mediastinum, which may be pathological or introduced intentionally.

pneumomediastinum

[no̅o̅′mōmē′dē·əstī′nəm]
Etymology: Gk, pneuma, air, mediastinus, midway
the presence of air or gas in the mediastinal tissues. In infants it may lead to pneumothorax or pneumopericardium, especially in those with respiratory distress syndrome or aspiration pneumonitis. In older children the condition may result from bronchitis, acute asthma, pertussis, cystic fibrosis, or bronchial rupture from cough or trauma. Also called Hamman's disease.

mediastinal emphysema

The presence of air in mediastinal soft tissues.

Clinical findings
Severe chest pain, dyspnoea, Hamman sign.

Aetiology
• Respiratory tract—trauma to lungs, perforation of upper airways, asthma, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.
• GI tract—rupture of oesophagus, bowel.
• Other (e.g., obesity).
 
Management
Usually conservative, as emphysema slowly resolves on its own; in the face of lung collapse, the patient must lie on the side of the collapsed lung.

pneumomediastinum

Mediastinal emphysema Critical care The presence of air in the mediastinum, either post-traumatic or induced during mediastinoscopy; the air may percolate into the thorax, resulting in
pneumothorax, or into the pericardium, causing pneumopericardium. See Emphysema.

pneu·mo·me·di·as·ti·num

(nū'mō-mē'dē-ă-stī'nŭm)
Escape of air into mediastinal tissues, usually from interstitial emphysema or from a ruptured pulmonary bleb.
[G. pneuma, air, + mediastinum]

pneumomediastinum

the presence of air or gas in tissues of the mediastinum, occurring pathologically or introduced intentionally.
References in periodicals archive ?
After the exclusion of these serious conditions, primary spontaneous pneumomediastinum can usually be managed expectantly with careful observation.
These are usually associated with pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum and should be suspected with continued air leak or despite chest tube decompression.
Risk factors for hypercarbia, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum during laparoscopy.
Complications included pleural effusion (5 patients), pneumomediastinum (6), atelectasis (6), myositis (2), and plastic bronchitis (1).
Key Words: spontaneous pneumomediastinum, achalasia, esophageal perforation, pneumomediastinum, tension pneumomediastinum.
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum has been reported as a complication of influenza, including pandemic (H1N1) 2009, in adults and children (18,19).
Chest x-ray revealed multilobar consolidations and pneumomediastinum.
decompression of interstitial blebs resulting in pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumopericardium, pneumoperitoneum and or surgical emphysema.
The patient also developed pneumomediastinum and CT of the chest showed increase in the cavitary disease (Figure 4).
Less common complications including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, mesh rejection and small bowel obstruction have also been reported (3-5).
A postoperative chest x-ray showed no pneumomediastinum.
Abstract: We report a case of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum secondary to pyomyositis and necrotizing fasciitis over the right arm of a woman with underlying diabetes mellitus and iatrogenic Cushing syndrome.