plumbism


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Related to plumbism: lead poisoning

lead1

 (Pb) [led]
a chemical element, atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19. Excessive ingestion or absorption causes lead poisoning. (See also Appendix 6.)
l. poisoning poisoning caused by the presence of lead or lead salts in the body; it affects the brain, nervous system, blood, and digestive system and can be either chronic or acute. Called also plumbism and saturnism.
Chronic Lead Poisoning. This was once fairly common among painters, and was called “painter's colic.” It became less frequent as lead-free paints were substituted for lead-based ones and as plastic toys replaced lead ones. The disease is still seen among children with pica (a craving for unnatural articles of food) who may eat lead paint chips or coatings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines an elevated blood lead level as >10 μg/dL for children younger than six years of age. However, there is evidence that there are subtle effects even at lower levels

Symptoms include weight loss, anemia, stomach cramps (lead colic), a bluish black line at the edge of the gums, and constipation. Other symptoms may be mental depression and, in children, irritability and convulsions. In addition to the poisoning, the anemia and weight loss must also be treated, usually by providing an adequate diet. In serious cases, EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) may be prescribed.
Acute Lead Poisoning. This rare condition can be caused in two ways: lead may accumulate in the bones, liver, kidneys, brain, and muscles and then be released suddenly to produce an acute condition; or large amounts of lead may be inhaled or ingested at one time. Symptoms are a metallic taste in the mouth, vomiting, bloody or black diarrhea, and muscle cramps. Diagnosis is made by examination of the blood and urine.
Treatment. Immediate removal of unabsorbed lead in the intestinal tract through the administration of mild saline cathartics and enemas. EDTA is given and in most cases measures must be taken to reduce the increased intracranial pressure that accompanies acute lead poisoning.
Prevention. An awareness of the prevalence of lead poisoning among children of preschool age who live in poorly maintained housing has led to neighborhood screening surveys in high-risk areas.

An important aspect of prevention of lead poisoning is determination of sources of lead in the environment and efforts to remove them. Sources include peeling paint from window sills, walls, floors, and bannisters, and from soil around old houses that have shed exterior paint through the years. An often unsuspected source is the glaze of certain pottery and “leaded glass;” lead can leach out into food and beverages from such vessels. A vital factor in coping with the problem of lead contamination is public education and development of a community awareness of possible sources and of the need for elimination of these hazards from the environment.

lead poi·son·ing

acute or chronic intoxication by lead or any of its salts; symptoms of acute lead poisoning usually are those of acute gastroenteritis in adults or encephalopathy in children; chronic lead poisoning is manifested chiefly by anemia, constipation, colicky abdominal pain, neuropathy with paralysis with wrist-drop involving the extensor muscles of the forearm, bluish lead line of the gums, and interstitial nephritis; saturnine gout, convulsions, and coma may occur.
Synonym(s): plumbism, saturnism

plumbism

/plum·bism/ (plum´bizm) chronic lead poisoning; see lead 1.

plumbism

(plŭm′bĭz′əm)
n.
Chronic lead poisoning.

plumbism

[plum′izəm]
Etymology: L, plumbum, lead
a chronic form of lead poisoning caused by absorption of lead or lead salts. See also lead poisoning.

plumbism

(1) Chronic lead poisoning, see there.
(2) Lead neuropathy.

lead poi·son·ing

(led poy'zŏn-ing)
Acute or chronic intoxication by lead or any of its salts; symptoms of acute lead poisoning usually are those of acute gastroenteritis in adults or encephalopathy in children; chronic lead poisoning is manifested chiefly by anemia, constipation, colicky abdominal pain, neuropathy with paralysis (especially wrist-drop involving the extensor muscles of the forearm) bluish lead line of the gums, and interstitial nephritis; saturnine gout, convulsions, and coma may occur.
Synonym(s): plumbism.

plumbism

Lead poisoning.

lead poi·son·ing

(led poy'zŏn-ing)
Acute or chronic intoxication by lead or any of its salts; symptoms of acute lead poisoning usually are those of acute gastroenteritis in adults or encephalopathy in children; chronic lead poisoning is manifested chiefly by anemia, constipation, colicky abdominal pain, finding of a bluish lead line of the gums, and interstitial nephritis; gout, convulsions, and coma may occur.

plumbism (plum´bizəm),

n acute or chronic intoxication resulting from the ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption of lead. Manifestations of acute poisoning include abdominal pain, paralysis, metallic taste, and collapse. Chronic manifestations include gastrointestinal disturbances, headache, peripheral neuropathy (foot drop and wrist drop), lead in the urine and blood, basophilic granular degeneration, coproporphyrinuria, and stomatitis. Also called
lead poisoning and
saturnism. See also stomatitis, lead.

plumbism

a chronic form of poisoning caused by absorption of lead or lead salts. See also lead1 poisoning.
References in periodicals archive ?
The involvement of ALA as a prooxidant in the cellular damage observed in plumbism has been studied extensively by Bechara [12].
A previous report of 50-year follow-up of children with plumbism found a higher risk for hypertension in adulthood compared with controls, suggesting a very long induction period (Hu 1991).
However, studies have shown that body lead burden was not elevated among patients with renal insufficiency or chronic renal failure if they did not have a history of childhood plumbism or high lead exposure (Batuman et al.
Childhood plumbism identified after lead poisoning in household pets.
Reduction of the child's environmental exposure to lead remains the most important factor in the management of pediatric plumbism, even for children receiving pharmacologic treatment.