pleurisy


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Pleurisy

 

Definition

Pleurisy is an inflammation of the membrane that surrounds and protects the lungs (the pleura). Inflammation occurs when an infection or damaging agent irritates the pleural surface. As a consequence, sharp chest pains are the primary symptom of pleurisy.

Description

Pleurisy, also called pleuritis, is a condition that generally stems from an existing respiratory infection, disease, or injury. In people who have otherwise good health, respiratory infections or pneumonia are the main causes of pleurisy. This condition used to be more common, but with the advent of antibiotics and modern disease therapies, pleurisy has become less prevalent.
The pleura is a double-layered structure made up of an inner membrane, which surrounds the lungs, and an outer membrane, which lines the chest cavity. The pleural membranes are very thin, close together, and have a fluid coating in the narrow space between them. This liquid acts as a lubricant, so that when the lungs inflate and deflate during breathing, the pleural surfaces can easily glide over one another.
Pleurisy occurs when the pleural surfaces rub against one another, due to irritation and inflammation. Infection within the pleural space is the most common irritant, although the abnormal presence of air, blood, or cells can also initiate pleurisy. These disturbances all act to displace the normal pleural fluid, which forces the membranes to rub, rather than glide, against one another. This rubbing irritates nerve endings in the outer membrane and causes pain. Pleurisy also causes a chest noise that ranges from a faint squeak to a loud creak. This characteristic sound is called a "friction rub."
Pleurisy cases are classified either as having pleural effusion or as being "dry." Pleural effusion is more common and refers to an accumulation of fluid within the pleural space; dry pleurisy is inflammation without fluid build-up. Less pain occurs with pleural effusion because the fluid forces the membrane surfaces apart. However, pleural effusion causes additional complications because it places pressure on the lungs. This leads to respiratory distress and possible lung collapse.

Causes and symptoms

A variety of conditions can give rise to pleurisy. The following list represents the most common sources of pleural inflammation.
  • infections, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, and other bacterial or viral respiratory infections
  • immune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and sarcoidosis
  • diseases, including cancer, pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, and heart or kidney failure
  • injury, from a rib fracture, collapsed lung, esophagus rupture, blood clot, or material such as asbestos
  • drug reactions, from certain drugs used to treat tuberculosis (isoniazid), cancer (methotrexate, procarbazine), or the immune disorders mentioned above (hydralazine, procainamide, phenytoin, quinidine)

Symptomatic pain

The hallmark symptom of pleurisy is sudden, intense chest pain that is usually located over the area of inflammation. Although the pain can be constant, it is usually most severe when the lungs move during breathing, coughing, sneezing, or even talking. The pain is usually described as shooting or stabbing, but in minor cases it resembles a mild cramp. When pleurisy occurs in certain locations, such as near the diaphragm, the pain may be felt in other areas such as the neck, shoulder, or abdomen (referred pain). Another indication of pleurisy is that holding one's breath or exerting pressure against the chest causes pain relief.

Breathing difficulties

Pleurisy is also characterized by certain respiratory symptoms. In response to the pain, pleurisy patients commonly have a rapid, shallow breathing pattern. Pleural effusion can also cause shortness of breath, as excess fluid makes expanding the lungs difficult. If severe breathing difficulties persist, patients may experience a blue colored complexion (cyanosis).
Additional symptoms of pleurisy are specific to the illness that triggers the condition. Thus, if infection is the cause, then chills, fever, and fatigue will be likely pleurisy symptoms.

Diagnosis

The distinctive pain of pleurisy is normally the first clue physicians use for diagnosis. Doctors usually feel the chest to find the most painful area, which is the likely site of inflammation. A stethoscope is also used to listen for abnormal chest sounds as the patient breathes. If the doctor hears the characteristic friction rub, the diagnosis of pleurisy can be confirmed. Sometimes, a friction rub is masked by the presence of pleural effusion and further examination is needed for an accurate diagnosis.
Identifying the actual illness that causes pleurisy is more difficult. To make this diagnosis, doctors must evaluate the patient's history, additional symptoms, and laboratory test results. A chest x ray may also be taken to look for signs of accumulated fluid and other abnormalities. Possible causes, such as pneumonia, fractured ribs, esophagus rupture, and lung tumors may be detected on an x ray. Computed tomography scan (CT scan) and ultrasound scans are more powerful diagnostic tools used to visualize the chest cavity. Images from these techniques more clearly pinpoint the location of excess fluid or other suspected problems.
The most helpful information in diagnosing the cause of pleurisy is a fluid analysis. Once the doctor knows the precise location of fluid accumulation, a sample is removed using a procedure called thoracentesis. In this technique, a fine needle is inserted into the chest to reach the pleural space and extract fluid. The fluid's appearance and composition is thoroughly examined to help doctors understand how the fluid was produced. Several laboratory tests are performed to analyze the chemical components of the fluid. These tests also determine whether infection-causing bacteria or viruses are present. In addition, cells within the fluid are identified and counted. Cancerous cells can also be detected to learn whether the pleurisy is caused by a malignancy.
In certain instances, such as dry pleurisy, or when a fluid analysis is not informative, a biopsy of the pleura may be needed for microscopic analysis. A sample of pleural tissue can be obtained several ways: with a biopsy needle, by making a small incision in the chest wall, or by using a thoracoscope (a video-assisted instrument for viewing the pleural space and collecting samples).

Treatment

Pain management

The pain of pleurisy is usually treated with analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and indomethacin. People with pleurisy may also receive relief from lying on the painful side. Sometimes, a painful cough will be controlled with codeine-based cough syrups. However, as the pain eases, a person with pleurisy should try to breathe deeply and cough to clear any congestion, otherwise pneumonia may occur. Rest is also important to aid in the recovery process.

Treating the source

The treatment used to cure pleurisy is ultimately defined by the underlying cause. Thus, pleurisy from a bacterial infection can be successfully treated with antibiotics, while no treatment is given for viral infections that must run their course. Specific therapies designed for more chronic illnesses can often cause pleurisy to subside. For example, tuberculosis pleurisy is treated with standard anti-tuberculosis drugs. With some illnesses, excess fluid continues to accumulate and causes severe respiratory distress. In these individuals, the fluid may be removed by thoracentesis, or the doctor may insert a chest tube to drain large amounts. If left untreated, a more serious infection may develop within the fluid, called empyema.

Alternative treatment

Alternative treatments can be used in conjunction with conventional treatment to help heal pleurisy. Acupuncture and botanical medicines are alternative approaches for alleviating pleural pain and breathing problems. An herbal remedy commonly recommended is pleurisy root (Asclepias tuberosa), so named because of its use by early American settlers who learned of this medicinal plant from Native Americans. Pleurisy root helps to ease pain, inflammation, and breathing difficulties brought on by pleurisy. This herb is often used in conjunction with mullein (Verbascum thapsus) or elecampane (Inula helenium), which serve as expectorants to clear excess mucus from the lungs. In addition, there are many other respiratory herbs that are used as expectorants or for other actions on the respiratory system. Herbs thought to combat infection, such as echinacea (Echinacea spp.) are also included in herbal pleurisy remedies. Anitviral herbs, such as Lomatium dissectum and Ligusticum porteri, can be used if the pleurisy is of viral origin. Traditional Chinese medicine uses the herb ephedra (Ephedra sinica), which acts to open air passages and alleviate respiratory difficulties in pleurisy patients. Dietary recommendations include eating fresh fruits and vegetables, adequate protein, and good quality fats (omega—3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory and are found in fish and flax oil). Taking certain nutritional supplements, especially large doeses of vitamin C, may also provide health benefits to people with pleurisy. Contrast hydrotherapy applied to the chest and back, along with compresses (cloths soaked in an herbal solution) or poultices (crushed herbs applied directly to the skin) of respiratory herbs, can assist in the healing process. Homeopathic treatment, guided by a trained practitioner, can be effective in resolving pleurisy.

Prognosis

Prompt diagnosis, followed by appropriate treatment, ensures a good recovery for most pleurisy patients. Generally speaking, the prognosis for pleurisy is linked to the seriousness of its cause. Therefore, the outcome of pleurisy caused by a disease such as cancer will vary depending on the type and location of the tumor.

Prevention

Preventing pleurisy is often a matter of providing early medical attention to conditions that can cause pleural inflammation. Along this line, appropriate antibiotic treatment of bacterial respiratory infections may successfully prevent some cases of pleurisy. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle and avoiding exposure to harmful substances (for example, asbestos) are more general preventative measures.

Resources

Organizations

American Lung Association. 1740 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. (800) 586-4872. http://www.lungusa.org.
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. P.O. Box 30105, Bethesda, MD 20824-0105. (301) 251-1222. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov.

Key terms

Effusion — The accumulation of fluid within a cavity, such as the pleural space.
Empyema — An infection that causes pus to accumulate in the pleural space. The pus may cause a tear in the pleural membrane, which allows the infection to spread to other areas in the body. Intravenous antibiotics are often given to control the infection.
Inflammation — An accumulation of fluid and cells within tissue that is often caused by infection and the immune response that occurs as a result.
Pneumonia — A condition caused by bacterial or viral infection that is characterized by inflammation of the lungs and fluid within the air passages. Pneumonia is often an underlying cause of pleurisy.
Referred pain — The presence of pain in an area other than where it originates. In some pleurisy cases, referred pain occurs in the neck, shoulder, or abdomen.

pleur·i·sy

(plūr'i-sē),
Inflammation of the pleura.
Synonym(s): pleuritis
[L. pleurisis, fr. G. pleuritis]

pleurisy

/pleu·ri·sy/ (ploor´ĭ-se) inflammation of the pleura.pleurit´ic
adhesive pleurisy  fibrinous p.
dry pleurisy  fibrinous p.
pleurisy with effusion  that marked by serous exudation.
fibrinous pleurisy  a type with fibrinous adhesions between the visceral and parietal pleurae, obliterating part or all of the pleural space.
interlobular pleurisy  a form enclosed between the lobes of the lung.
plastic pleurisy  fibrinous p.
purulent pleurisy  empyema (2).
serous pleurisy  that marked by free exudation of fluid.
suppurative pleurisy  empyema (2).
wet pleurisy  p. with effusion.

pleurisy

(plo͝or′ĭ-sē)
n.
Inflammation of the pleura, usually occurring as a complication of a disease such as pneumonia, accompanied by accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity, chills, fever, and painful breathing and coughing.

pleu·rit′ic (plo͝o-rĭt′ĭk) adj.

pleurisy

[ploo͡r′əsē]
Etymology: Gk, pleura + itis, inflammation
inflammation of the parietal pleura of the lungs. It is characterized by dyspnea and stabbing pain, leading to restriction of ordinary breathing with spasm of the chest on the affected side. A pleural friction rub may be heard on auscultation. Simple pleurisy with undetectable exudate is called fibrinous or dry pleurisy. Pleural effusion indicates extensive inflammation with considerable amounts of exudate in the pleural spaces. Common causes of pleurisy include bronchial carcinoma, lung or chest wall abscess, pneumonia, pulmonary infarction, and tuberculosis. The condition may result in permanent adhesions between the pleura and adjacent surfaces. Treatment consists of pain relief and therapy for the primary disease. See also acute pleurisy, adhesive pleurisy, pleural effusion, pleurodynia, pulmonary edema. pleuritic, adj.

pleuritis

Pleural inflammation.
 
Aetiology
Respiratory tract infections, TB, rheumatoid disease, lung neoplasms.
 
Clinical findings
Chest wall pain at the site of inflammation, which increases with breathing, coughing and chest movement; the pleural surfaces, roughened by inflammation, rub together with each breath, causing a rough grating sound (“friction rub”) heard with a stethoscope; fluid accumulation separates parietal and visceral pleurae, decreased chest pain; large effusions compromise respiration and may cause coughing, shortness of breath, tachypnoea, cyanosis, rib retraction.

pleur·i·sy

(plūr'i-sē)
Inflammation of the pleura.
Synonym(s): pleuritis.
[L. pleurisis, fr. G. pleuritis]

pleurisy

Inflammation of the PLEURA. This is usually caused by a virus infection or as a secondary effect of an underlying lung infection, such as PNEUMONIA. There is dull pain that becomes severe and stabbing on inspiration. There is no specific treatment for viral pleurisy or viral pneumonia. Bacterial pneumonia will usually respond to antibiotics.

pleurisy (plerˑ··sē),

n inflammatory condition of the pleural membranes marked by stabbing pain during inspiration. Possible causes include pneumonia, viral infections, cancer, tuberculosis, and other conditions.

pleur·i·sy

(plūr'i-sē)
Inflammation of the pleura.
[L. pleurisis, fr. G. pleuritis]

pleurisy (plur´əsē),

n an inflammation of the pleura, with exudation into its cavity and on its surface.

pleuritis, pleurisy

inflammation of the pleura; it may be caused by infection, injury or tumor. It may be a complication of lung diseases, particularly of pneumonia or lung abscess. Typical signs of acute pleurisy include painful respiratory movements causing grunting and rapid shallow breathing. Chronic pleurisy includes empyema with collapse of lung and dyspnea with toxemia, or interference with respiratory movements by adhesions.
Enlarge picture
Fibrinous pleuritis in a horse at necropsy. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003

bile pleuritis
see bile pleuritis.
constrictive pleuritis
adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura restrict movement of the lungs and the chest wall.
dry pleuritis
inflammation of the pleura without effusion. Painful, the cause of dry cough, shallow, rapid respiration and sounds of friction rubbing. Can be a stage in the development or healing of serous or purulent pleuritis.
restrictive pleuritis
development of fibrous tissue on pleura may restrict expansion of lungs.
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