To determine this contribution, we focused on fathers' play participation as an index of their parental involvement.
However, because Levy-Shiff, Dimtrovsky, Shulman, and Har-Even (1998) found in their longitudinal research that social support, including spousal support, was not correlated with mothers' parenting efficacy, we assumed that there was no direct association between fathers' play participation and mothers' parenting efficacy.
In addition, fathers from higher income families engage in more play participation than do those from low-income families (Y.
Hypothesis 1: Fathers' play participation will have an indirect positive effect on children's social-emotional development via mothers' psychological parenting environments involving depression, parenting stress, and parenting efficacy.
Fathers' play participation was measured on a one item 5-point Likert scale with responses ranging from 1 (do not play together at all) through 2 (less than 30 minutes), 3 (30 minutes to 1 hour), and 4 (1-1.
The results of this study showed that in higher income families, greater levels of fathers' play participation were associated with relieving the depression and parenting stress of mothers, and that this fostered young children's socialemotional development.
Also, fathers' levels of play participation are low in low-income families (Y.
The structural relationships among the parenting characteristics, play participation and infant's social & emotional development [In Korean].
There was a significant relationship between real money gambling frequency and social casino play participation, [chi square](2.
Results also showed a significant relationship between real money gambling frequency and social casino play participation, with higher frequency real money gamblers most likely to report not playing social casino games.