plasma osmolality


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plasma osmolality

The osmotic concentration of plasma. Normally the ionic concentration in the plasma is maintained within a narrow range: 275 to 295 mOsm/kg. When plasma osmolality increases above normal, antidiuretic hormone (ADH [vasopressin]) is released. ADH prevents loss of water by the kidney and thus decreases plasma osmolality. An increase in plasma osmolality also produces the sensation of thirst, which stimulates the person to drink fluids; this, too, serves to decrease plasma osmolality.
See also: osmolality
References in periodicals archive ?
2012a) was to determine whether or not the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are mainly caused by the two factors, that is, ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst produced by dry forage feeding.
A high plasma osmolality was associated with a marked increase in mortality in long-term-care patients [13].
The reason for the increase in blood pressure is a marked increase in circulating plasma volume caused by an increase in plasma osmolality due to the retention of excessive salt in the blood as the animals' urinary sodium excretion capacity was exceeded between 20 and 29 weeks of age.
Table 3: Tank water osmolality (mmol/kg), mean plasma osmolality (mmol/kg) and standard error of mean (SE) of blood osmolality of rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (n = 15) at the end of a 10 week growing period in 15 ppt control sea water (CSW), Trt40 and Trt100.
Because sodium and its associated anions account for about 94 percent of the solute in the extracellular compartment, plasma osmolality can be roughly approximated as:
plasma osmolality, osmolarity, fluid therapy, psittacine, avian, African grey parrot, Psittacus erithacus erithacus, Hispaniolan Amazon parrot, Amazona ventralis, red-fronted macaw, Ara rubrogenys
An acute increase in plasma osmolality and acidosis may facilitate this movement of potassium (Hirota et al.
Following centrifugation, plasma osmolality was measured (uOsmette Model 5004, Precision Systems, Natick, MA) to ensure subjects were euhydrated according to ACSM standards (18).
Second, the intensity-dependent increase in AVP during exercise has previously-been attributed to changes in plasma osmolality occurring at higher exercise intensities due to hypotonic fluid movement from the intravascular to the extravascular space following metabolite accumulation in the muscle tissues (5).
Hyponatraemia reflects relative excess of free water to solute and is usually accompanied by a decrease in plasma osmolality.
The ranking of causes/mechanisms associated with IDH were the rate of ultrafiltration exceeds cardiovascular compensation (1st), cardiac dysfunction (2nd), and a decline in plasma osmolality and extracellular fluid volume (3rd) (see Table 2).
In contrast, when plasma osmolality is reduced to below 280 mOsm/kg, ADH release is inhibited, no water reabsorption by the kidney occurs, and a large volume of dilute urine is excreted (Tang & Lau, 1995).

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