plasma exchange


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Related to plasma exchange: plasma exchange therapy

exchange

 [eks-chānj´]
1. the substitution of one thing for another.
2. to substitute one thing for another.
gas exchange the passage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in opposite directions across the alveolocapillary membrane.
health care information exchange in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as providing patient care information to health professionals in other agencies.
impaired gas exchange a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as excess or deficit in oxygenation and/or carbon dioxide elimination at the alveolocapillary membrane (see gas exchange). Etiological and contributing factors include an altered oxygen supply, changes in the alveolar-capillary membrane, altered blood flow, and altered oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Defining characteristics include changes in mental status such as confusion, somnolence, restlessness, and irritability; ineffective coughing and inability to move secretions from the air passages; hypercapnia; and hypoxia. For specific medical treatments and nursing interventions, see airway clearance, ineffective; breathing patterns, ineffective; chronic airflow limitation; and anemia.
plasma exchange see plasma exchange.

plasma

 [plaz´mah]
1. the fluid portion of the lymph.
2. the fluid portion of the blood, in which the formed elements (blood cells) are suspended. Plasma is to be distinguished from serum, which is plasma from which the fibrinogen has been separated in the process of clotting. Called also blood plasma. adj., adj plasmat´ic, plas´mic.

Of the total volume of blood, 55 per cent is made up of plasma. It is a clear, straw-colored liquid, 92 per cent water, in which are contained plasma proteins, inorganic salts, nutrients, gases, waste materials from the cells, and various hormones, secretions, and enzymes. These substances are transported to or from the tissues of the body by the plasma.

Plasma obtained from blood donors is given to persons suffering from loss of blood or from shock to help maintain adequate blood pressure. Since plasma can be dried and stored in bottles, it can be transported almost anywhere, ready for immediate use after addition of the appropriate fluid. Plasma can be given to anyone, regardless of blood type. (See also transfusion.)

Plasma volume is sometimes measured in order to calculate the total blood volume. The most common method for determining plasma volume is by injection of a dye (T-1824, called Evans blue) into the circulating blood and, after the dye has been dispersed throughout the body, using the dilution of the dye to calculate the total blood volume.
antihemophilic human plasma normal human plasma that has been processed promptly to preserve the antihemophilic properties of the original blood; used for temporary correction of bleeding tendency in hemophilia.
blood plasma plasma (def. 2).
citrated plasma blood plasma treated with sodium citrate, which prevents clotting.
plasma exchange the removal of plasma from withdrawn blood (plasmapheresis) and retransfusion of the formed elements and type-specific fresh frozen plasma into the donor; done for removal of circulating antibodies or abnormal plasma components.
fresh frozen plasma plasma separated from whole blood and frozen within 8 hours; it contains all the coagulation factors.
plasma thromboplastin antecedent deficiency hemophilia C.

plasma exchange

Etymology: Gk, plassein, to mold; L, ex + cambire, to change; Gk, therapeia, treatment
a method of treating certain diseases by removing a part of the patient's plasma and replacing it with albumin, plasma, or other fluids. The goal may be to reduce a pathogenic molecule, protein, autoantibody, alloantibody, immune-complex, drug, toxin, or inhibitor, or to replace deficient plasma with normal plasma. Also called therapeutic plasmapheresis.

plasma

the fluid portion of the blood in which corpuscles are suspended. Plasma is to be distinguished from serum, which is plasma from which the fibrinogen has been separated in the process of clotting.

plasma bound
many electrolytes exist in plasma in a form in which they are bound to protein which reduces their lability and liability to loss in the urine, e.g. protein-bound iodine.
plasma cell gingitivitis-pharyngitis
see feline plasma cell gingivitis-pharyngitis.
plasma cell myeloma
see multiple myeloma.
plasma cell pododermatitis
a nonpainful swelling with ulceration and exuberant granulation tissue on the footpads of cats. The cause is unknown but believed to be immunological.
Enlarge picture
Plasma cell pododermatitis in a cat.
plasma clearing factor
a lipoprotein lipase which lipolyses the triglyceride in the chylomicrons of the plasma and hence clears it of cloudiness.
plasma exchange
the removal of plasma from withdrawn blood (plasmapheresis) and retransfusion of the formed elements and type-specific fresh-frozen plasma into the donor; done for removal of circulating antibodies or abnormal plasma components.
plasma expanders
see plasma volume expander.
fresh-frozen plasma
prepared from whole blood; a source of coagulation factors.
plasma protein
the heterologous group of proteins in circulating blood that includes albumin, lipoproteins, glycoproteins, transcortin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, cholinesterase, α2-macroglobulin, erythropoietin, transferrin, hemopexin, fibrinogen, plasminogen and the immunoglobulins (γ-globulins).
plasma protein:fibrinogen (PP:F) ratio
an indicator of significant changes in fibrinogen levels, taking into account dehydration.
plasma substitute
a fluid suitable for use as a replacement for plasma in the animal body. Usually a solution of gelatin or dextran.
therapeutic plasma concentration
a therapy-response relationship determined only by experiment; the plasma level which is matched by the desired therapeutic response.
plasma thromboplastin antecedent
clotting factor XI; see plasma thromboplastin antecedent.
plasma turbidity test
a qualitative test for fat absorption, performed by comparing the turbidity of plasma before and 2, 3 and 4 hours after the oral administration of fats, usually vegetable oil. Results are greatly influenced by delays in gastric emptying, so normally this test can only be relied upon to rule out malabsorption or maldigestion when evidence of absorption is found.
plasma volume
the estimation of plasma volume is essential to a complete knowledge of a patient's fluid status. The common technique is by the intravenous injection of a known amount of a dye such as Evans blue and the subsequent measurement of the dilution that it has undergone in a set time period.
References in periodicals archive ?
Decreasing frequency of plasma exchange complications in patients treated for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome, 1996 to 2011.
In patients in whom eculizumab treatment can not be initiated in 24-48 hours, plasma transfusion or plasma exchange is recommended.
Hay require washed blood products if Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T antigen) positive, and plasma exchange (PE) trial if severe.
A case report on the role of plasma exchange in the management of a massive besylate intoxication.
Therapeutic plasma exchange removes the patient's plasma, which contains autoantibodies, and the plasma must be replaced with an appropriate fluid.
In this study, we treated FHF patients with daily continuous hemofiltration, followed by sequential plasma exchange or hemodialysis every 2-3 days in addition to a comprehensive liver protection therapy, and achieved positive outcomes.
Here we present a case of SCD presenting with painful vaso-occlusive crises, acute chest syndrome and thrombocytopaenia secondary to TTP as supported by peripheral blood film and low ADAMTS13 activity and response to plasma exchange therapy.
By day 9 complete response to plasma exchange was evident by disappearance of the neurological symptoms, normalisation of haemoglobin, platelet count, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin and creatinine levels.
The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and was started on pulse methylprednisolone, plasma exchange, and cyclophosphamide.
Treatment of severe diabetic hypertriglyceridaemia by plasma exchange.
His research helped establish plasma exchange therapy as a treatment for people with severe MS attacks unresponsive to steroids