plant toxin


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phy·to·tox·in

(fī'tō-tok'sin),
A toxic substance of plant origin.
Synonym(s): plant toxin
[phyto- + G. toxikon, poison]

plant toxin

Etymology: ME, plante + Gk, toxikon, poison
any poisonous substance derived from a plant, such as ricin, which is produced by castor-oil seeds.

toxin

(tok'sin) [ tox(ic) + -in]

anthrax toxin

The three proteins made by the infectious bacterium Bacillus anthracis responsible for the deadly effects of anthrax. Anthrax toxin includes protective antigen, which helps lethal and edema factors enter and kill cells by disrupting the cell membrane's normal biochemical functions.

bacterial toxin

A poison produced by bacteria that cause cell damage. They include exotoxins, e.g., those secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and endotoxins. Endotoxins continue to cause damage even after the bacteria are killed.
See: bacteria

botulinum toxin type A

A neuromuscular blocking drug used to paralyze muscles, esp. muscles in spasm. It is also used for cosmetic purposes, e.g., by those desirous of maintaining a fixed facial appearance.

botulinus toxin

A neurotoxin that blocks acetylcholine release, produced by Clostridium botulinum, the causative organism for botulism. Seven types of the toxin have been identified.

dermonecrotic toxin

Any of a group of toxins that can cause necrosis of the skin. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus produces several such toxins.
Synonym: exfoliative toxin See: Kawasaki disease; staphylococcal scaled skin syndrome; toxic shock syndrome

Dick toxin

See: Dick toxin

diphtheria toxin

The toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

diphtheria toxin for Schick test

The toxin used for determining immunity to diphtheria.
See: Schick test

dysentery toxin

The exotoxin of various species of Shigella.

erythrogenic toxin

The former name for the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins.

exfoliative toxin

Dermonecrotic toxin.

iota toxin

Either of two disease-causing proteins (Ib and Ia) released by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. Ia binds to Ib and gains entry into the host cell cytoplasm. Ib subsequently disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and kills the cell.

plant toxin

Phytotoxin.

reproductive toxin

Any chemical or physical agent that destroys or inactivates the ovaries or testes, damages chromosomes, adversely effects reproductive hormones, or has a harmful impact on a developing fetus.

Shiga toxin

See: Shiga toxin.
References in periodicals archive ?
The exposure of cells to some plant toxins reduces the mitochondrial transmembrane electrical potential gradient ([DELTA] [psi]m), resulting in the activation of caspases and subsequent apoptosis (Kim et al.
In addition to apoptosis, increasing evidence suggests that these plant toxins elicit alternative molecular mechanisms that trigger different cell death programmes.
The interaction between other insects and plant toxins exposed to steady temperatures would likely be similar to that seen with hornworms, Stamp predicts.
It seems plausible that many of the practices that differentiate organic and industrial agriculture could be at play in the elaboration of natural plant toxins, and not simply pesticide use.
Other scientists have found that factors such as temperature can boost insects, resistance to plant toxins (SN: 4/9/94, p.
Washington, May 1 (ANI): In a new study, scientists have detected common plant toxins that affect human health and ecosystems in smoke from forest fires.
Clinical testing, he explains, has proven that Ivy-Dry Defense puts down a chemical barrier on the skin and prevents plant toxins from penetrating and causing irritation.
Biologic effects of plant toxins and aflatoxins in rats.
Other harmful plant toxins include alkaloid compounds found in lupines (members of the pea family), poison-hemlock, and various tobacco species, as well as larkspur.
However, shuffling genes has elevated natural plant toxins in the past, says Jack Doyle, director of the agriculture and biotechnology project at the Environmental Policy Institute in Washington, D.
Just in time for insect season, David Kolb presents a free seminar on how to naturally treat insect bites and deal with various plant toxins.
In recent laboratory studies, they also found the pump is active in certain normal cells, possibly to remove plant toxins ingested in food.