placental

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pla·cen·tal

(plă-sen'tăl),
Relating to the placenta.

placental

[pləsen′təl]
Etymology: L, placenta, flat cake
pertaining to the placenta.

hydrops fetalis

Kernicterus, Rh incompatibility, Rh-induced hemolytic disease of newborn Obstetrics An accumulation of fluid in neonates, resulting in a 'puffy', plethoric or hydropic appearance that may be due to various etiologies Clinical Ascites, edema, ↓ protein or chronic intrauterine anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, cardiomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis, jaundice, pallor COD Heart failure. See Hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Hydrops Fetalis, causes
Immune Mother produces IgG antibodies against infant antigen(s), often an RBC antigen, most commonly, anti-RhD, which then passes into the fetal circulation, causing hemolysis
Non-immune Hydrops may result from various etiologies including
•  Fetal origin, eg congenital heart disease (premature foramen ovale closure, large AV septal defect), hematologic (erythroblastosis fetalis, α-thalassemia due to hemoglobin Barts, chronic fetomaternal or twin-twin transfusion), infection (CMV, herpesvirus, rubella, sepsis, toxoplasma), pulmonary (cystic adenomatoid malformation, diaphragmatic hernia, with pulmonary hypoplasia, lymphangiectasia), renal (vein thrombosis, congenital nephrosis) and teratomas, skeletal malformations (achondroplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, fetal neuroblastomatosis, storage disease, meconium peritonitis, idiopathic)
•  Placental Chorangioma, umbilical or chorionic vein thrombosis
 Maternal DM, toxemia  

pla·cen·tal

(plă-sen'tăl)
Relating to the placenta.

placental

pertaining to or emanating from placenta.

placental barrier
the placental separation of maternal and fetal blood which varies in its structure and permeability between the species. In general the more layers of cells between the two circulations the less permeable the membrane. In none of the domestic animals are significant amounts of immune globulins or erythrocyte antigens passed through the membranes unless the epithelium is damaged. See also placenta.
placental calcification
accumulations of mineral deposit especially around the vessels and in the allantois, a normal occurrence in most species.
placental cavities
the allantoic and amniotic cavities; called also amniotic and allantoic sac.
placental edema
edema of the placenta, without necessarily any involvement of the fetus.
placental hormones
the placenta in all species produces estrogens and progesterone. In the cow it also produces lactogen, a hormone that influences structural and functional aspects of milk production. In the mare the endometrial cups produce pmsg (now called eCG) which assists in the maintenance of pregnancy. The equine, feline and primate placentae also produce relaxin which has a similar action.
placental implantation
the placenta of a viable fetus, escaped from the genital tract, can implant successfully to the peritoneum.
placental inflammation
placental lactogen
a placental hormone present in the cow's peripheral circulation at about 160 days of pregnancy; thought to have prolactin and growth-hormone capabilities.
placental mole
see mole.
placental plaques
are normal structures on the amnion in most species. They are foci of squamous epithelium.
placental removal
manual removal per vagina, detaching the placenta from each caruncle in turn.
placental transfer of immunoglobulins
see placental barrier (above) and passive immunity.
References in periodicals archive ?
To verify if these methods could be implemented in the RNA-SNP ratio assay for placentally expressed genes on chromosome 21 (1, 4), we used an SNP (rs2187247) located in exon 2 of C21orf105 as a model system.
3, B and C, in the online Data Supplement) can be applied to clinical plasma samples (placental RNA from maternal plasma) and adapted easily to related placentally expressed genes on chromosome 21.
Future studies might address whether different placentally expressed transcripts are cleared from maternal plasma at similar time profiles.
Thus, our study provides useful baseline data for comparison with future studies on other circulating placentally expressed transcripts in maternal plasma.
For this reason it will be necessary to increase our knowledge of cell-free placentally derived mRNA molecules in maternal plasma, their expression changes during pregnancy and pregnancy-related pathologies, and their relationship with circulatory fetal DNA under such conditions (16).
Placentally derived fetal mRNA in the plasma was quantified by one-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR using an assay for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) as described previously (6).
It is generally believed that in pregnant women the source of cell-free fetal nucleic acids is placentally derived apoptotic cells (9).
Comparison of fetal globin gene expression with placentally derived gene expression may allow us to definitively determine whether the increased fetal nucleic acids seen after 9 weeks of gestation in maternal plasma are from a placental or hematopoietic source (13).
It is generally believed that in pregnant women the source of cell-free fetal nucleic acids is placentally derived apoptotic cells (12), but it has recently been shown that some fetal DNA sequences are detectable in membrane-bound vesicles (13).
To convert the experimentally validated strategy as described in this study to a clinical diagnostic application, quantitative plasma analysis of a placentally expressed, chromosome 21-encoded mRNA (target gene) must be complemented by correction for experimental and biological variability.