Category 2 Anomalies Number % Small intestinal stenosis 1 Single umbilical artery 2 Renal cyst with single atria 1 and ventricle Absent kidney L 1 Congenital lobar emphysema 2 Spinal haemangioma 1 Haemangioma scalp 1 Renal agenesis B/L 1 Placental infarct
1 Placental necrosis 1 Total 12 24.
Infarcts were noted on gross examination and extent of placental infarct was recorded in terms of percentage of infarcted area (nil/less than 5%, 5-25%, 25-50%, greater than 50%) and their pattern of distribution (focal/multifocal/diffuse).
Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted.
Among these 130 hypertensive patients, placental infarct
was found in 31% (n=40) patients (Table 1).
Wigglesworth demonstrated that placental infarct
of more than 5% area had been a key factor in causing low birth rate.
5,27-31) The morphologic features include placental infarcts
, decidual arteriopathy with foamy histiocytes, fibrinoid necrosis, retroplacental hemorrhage (abruption clinically), accelerated (advanced) villous maturation with distal villous hypoplasia, and lack of physiologic remodeling of the spiral arterioles (Figures 13 and 14).
by placental infarcts
or solitary umbilical artery), intrauterine trauma, premature rupture of amniotic membranes or amniotic bands.
Significant placental infarcts
(infarcts occurring >10% of placenta) (Figure 1) happened in 15 of IUGR group and none in control group (p <0.
Some significant placental diagnoses can be suspected by a focused and careful gross examination of the placenta, requiring no histopathologic resources, for example, velamentous cord insertion, retroplacental hematomas suggesting acute or chronic abruption, and placental infarcts
(Tables 2 and 3).
Sickle cell trait is associated with previously unreported signs of fetal hypoxia, placental infarcts
, and possibly excess risk of fetal demise, according to a study presented in poster form at the annual meeting of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine.
In the current study, the observed findings of the placental lesions are ischemic necrosis, increased syncitial knots, inflammatory cell collections, excessive fibrinoid necrosis, placental infarcts
9] Among 50 placentas, placental infarcts
were observed in 14 cases (28%).