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abnormal labor or childbirth.
fetal dystocia that due to shape, size, or position of the fetus.
maternal dystocia that due to some condition inherent in the mother.
placental dystocia difficult delivery of the placenta.
retention or difficult delivery of the placenta.
a prolonged or otherwise difficult delivery of the placenta. See also dystocia.
pla·cen·tal dys·to·ci·a(plă-sen'tăl dis-tō'sē-ă)
Retention or difficult delivery of the placenta.
difficult parturition to the point of needing human intervention.
that due to some condition inherent in the dam.
difficult delivery of the placenta.
number of assisted births per hundred births.
the incidence of dystocia is enhanced by many factors including inherited large fetal size, especially in some breeds, high feeding level of the dam during pregnancy, inherited small diameter pelvic canal, youth of the dam, male calves compared to females, the occurrence of multiple births and congenital abnormalities which increase fetal size.