Further studies are now planned to investigate the brain mechanisms linking early life events, placental dysfunction
and the emotional state of adults.
77) Maldevelopment of the maternal spiral arteries in the first trimester predisposes to placental dysfunction
and suboptimal pregnancy outcomes in the second half of pregnancy.
Factors underlying fetal growth restriction Maternal: Demographic Socio-economic Intergenerational (low maternal birth weight) Malnutrition Chronic disease Hypoxaemia (high altitude) Drugs Uterine constraint Placental: Defective placentation Placental dysfunction
(pre-eclampsia, infarctions, bleeding, reduced area) Placental infection Fetal: Chromosomal disorders Congenital anomalies Fetal infections
in Suramin-treated rats-a new model for pre-eclampsia.
trisomy 13 and 18) and those associated with placental origin and placental dysfunction (such as preeclampsia).
Transcription factors important for placental function (GCMI) or involved in placental dysfunction (STOXI) are excellent candidates for this approach (13, 15) and should be considered in the context of prenatal diagnostics.
For example, preeclampsia or placental dysfunction
may directly cause or aggravate already existing kidney disease.
It is likely that the source of the DNA is apoptosis or cell death in the placenta and that free fetal DNA (ffDNA) levels could theoretically be increased in placental dysfunction or infarction.
We used plasma samples obtained during a previous study from pregnant women with singleton male pregnancies as controls and from women with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants that had been classified as having FGR due to placental dysfunction.
AFP is a nonspecific marker of fetal and placental dysfunction
, however, and may be associated with other causes of death besides SIDS, Dr.
That preeclampsia, low-birth-weight offspring, and short gestation were stronger risk factors during the first 5 years after childbirth suggest that preeclampsia or placental dysfunction
may accelerate development or progression of kidney disease but may also be explained by the presence of subclinical or undetected kidney disease before pregnancy," the investigators wrote.
It must be stressed, however, that vaginal bleeding may indicate an underlying placental dysfunction
(which might subsequently lead to miscarriage, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, or preterm delivery) that manifests later throughout the pregnancy and is associated with higher fetal cells and/or free nucleic acids passage into the maternal circulation, a condition that might affect mRNA quantification.