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Those who have a history of multiple abortions or have infections in the uterine lining are at higher risk of developing placenta previa.
Because serial ultrasounds performed on May 28 and June 24 demonstrated complete placenta previa, she underwent a cesarean section at 38 weeks' gestation.
A pregnant woman who in the intrapartum period refuses cesarean delivery for a well-documented, complete placenta previa in favor of vaginal delivery is exercising a negative right not to have surgery and a positive right to medical management of the only other alternative, vaginal delivery.
The 44-year-old was in the maternity hospital for three weeks before the birth because of the high-risk condition placenta previa, which occurs when the placenta covers the opening of the mother's cervix.
Risk factors for the placenta accreta are prior uterine surgery, placenta previa, advanced maternal age, parity, and smoking.
In addition, abortion is "also associated with an increased risk of infertility, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy and placenta previa.
Hoskins and her colleagues are currently involved in investigations in areas pertaining to maternal and fetal well being, including antepartum fetal heart rate testing, fetal ultrasonography, maternal screening, obstetrical surgical techniques, maternal acid base status, and obstetrical complications including placenta previa.
Lili J from Merthyr Tyd-fil was born 10 weeks premature by emergency caesarian because of a condition called placenta previa, weighed just 2lb 15oz and spent more than seven weeks in a special care baby unit.
Three years later, Margaret had to be rushed to Glasgow when she started bleeding due to developing placenta previa.
They may be associated with increased risks of uterine rupture in women attempting a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, and placental abruption and placenta previa in women with intervals less than one year.
Samima had been diagnosed with placenta previa, which can cause problems during birth such as haemorrhaging.
While these and later studies constitute the overall picture, some well-designed studies have suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure does have some serious adverse effects, most notably a greater risk of prematurity and higher rates of placenta previa.