Clinical diagnosis of ACL tear was determined by positive findings on anterior drawer test, Lachmann's test, and pivot shift test
and of PCL tear by positive findings on posterior drawer test and posterior sag (Godfrey test).
Ligament laxity was assessed using Lachman's test, Anterior drawer's test and Pivot shift test
There was no anterior or posterior drawer, she was stable to varus and valgus stresses, and her pivot shift test
Pivot shift test
: The pivot shift test
is a dynamic test which also tests the integrity of the ACL.
The pivot shift test
has a favorable positive predictive value, and the Lachman test has a good negative predictive value.
The original pivot shift test
was demonstrated by Galway and Mc Intosh in 1972.
The posterolateral rotatory pivot shift test
is done with the forearm in pronation
Orthopaedic surgeons can clinically reproduce this symptom when performing the pivot shift test
, first described by Galway and colleagues in 1972, as reported here from a subsequent publication.
Clinically, the orthopedic literature abounds with several descriptions of physical examination procedures and diagnostic tests to specifically assess the integrity of the menisci, such as joint line tenderness (JLT), (24) Apley compression test, (23) Anderson medial-lateral grind test, (25) McMurray's test, (26) Bounce home maneuver (24) and newer tests such as the Axially loaded pivot shift test
, (10) KKU knee compression rotation test (27), Ege's test (22) and Thessaly test.
One of the most useful tests employed for chronic ACL insufficiency is the pivot shift test
, which assists in determining to what extent the ACL has been torn.
Reverse Lachman and reverse pivot shift tests
also demonstrated posterolateral laxity compared to the contralateral limb.
Clinical outcomes of both groups were compared using International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scores, ROM, Lachman, pivot shift tests
, and patient satisfaction.