There was no anterior or posterior drawer, she was stable to varus and valgus stresses, and her pivot shift test
Pivot shift test: The pivot shift test is a dynamic test which also tests the integrity of the ACL.
No summary estimates could be calculated for the pivot shift test (due to a lack of available studies).
If the prior probability is low (say 10%, eg in general practice), a negative Lachman test will almost rule out an ACL rupture (probability decreasing from 10% to 2%), whereas a (difficult to perform and, therefore, less suitable) positive pivot shift test will result in referral to secondary care for further investigation (probability increasing from 10% to more than 60%).
Three common manual manipulations used to assess ligament laxity are the classic anterior/posterior drawer test, the Lachman test introduced by Torg et al (3), and the pivot shift test first described by Galway and Macintosh (4).
On clinical examination, he had a positive Lachman sign, a positive drawer sign, and a positive pivot shift test result.
The posterolateral rotatory pivot shift test
is done with the forearm in pronation
Orthopaedic surgeons can clinically reproduce this symptom when performing the pivot shift test, first described by Galway and colleagues in 1972, as reported here from a subsequent publication.
We present a new method to perform the pivot shift test that recalls the figure-of-four, or ashi-hishigi (knee lock), of judo, which easily allows the surgeon to perform the pivot shift test and varus-valgus stress test on those patients whose weight, height, or leg length may make the classic method more difficult.
One of the most useful tests employed for chronic ACL insufficiency is the pivot shift test
, which assists in determining to what extent the ACL has been torn.
It is expected within the physiotherapy that the front drawer, lachman and pivot shift tests
give positive results.
The investigators found a significant difference in anterior laxity, as measured by KT-2000, between the anatomic double-bundle groups and the single-bundle groups, as well as by pivot shift tests