has been described as a common external symptom that accompanies many infectious diseases, parasitic worm infections and nutritional disorders that limit copper resources for maintaining healthy hair of primates .
This evidence supports the association of NE and piloerection.
Others have suggested that piloerection can be used to determine a target's emotional state (cf.
When core temperature decreases, sympathetic (noradrenergic) mechanisms induce piloerection
, shivering, and vasoconstriction to produce body heat and shunt blood away from the cool surface.
Thirty minutes after administration, the animals were subjected to an initial period of observation of several CNS activityassociated behavioral parameters: locomotors activity, tremors, grip strength, bizarre behavior, convulsions, abdominal contortions, gait incapacity, piloerection
, palpebral closure, and constipation.
The animals were observed for general behavior and any toxic symptoms produced by the oil, such as cyanosis, tremors, convulsions, ataxia, extension of the limbs, increased muscle tone, piloerection
, tail flick, salivation, drowsiness, diarrhea, ptosis, respiratory effects, arched back, loss of righting, abdominal gripping and blanching.
In none of these doses usual signs of peripheral anticholinesterase inhibition, such as piloerection
, diarrhea or writing was observed.
On the first day, the animals were evaluated every 10 min for 4 h followed by 24, 48 and 72 h for any changes in spontaneous motor activity, gate, respiration, writhing, piloerection
We found that the height of the goose bump and the piloerection
duration can be deduced by analyzing obtained capacitance change trace," explained Young-Ho Cho.
The animals were observed continuously for 1 h and then half hourly for 4h for any gross behavioural changes for general motor activity, writhing, convulsion, response to tail pinching, gnawing, piloerection
, pupil size, fecal output, feeding behaviour etc.
Opioid Withdrawal: Abrupt reversal of opioid effects in persons who were physically dependent on opioids has precipitated signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal including: body aches, fever, sweating, runny nose, sneezing, piloerection
, yawning, weakness, shivering or trembling, nervousness, restlessness or irritability, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, abdominal cramps, increased blood pressure, tachycardia.
These symptoms may include: anxiety, sweating, insomnia, rigors, pain, nausea, tremors, diarrhea, upper respiratory symptoms, piloerection
, and rarely, hallucinations.