pigeon breast

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Related to pigeon breast: pigeon breast deformity


the front of the chest, especially the modified cutaneous, glandular structure it bears, the mamma. In women the breasts are secondary sex organs with the function of producing milk after childbirth. The term breast is less commonly used to refer to the breasts of the human male, which neither function nor develop.

At the tip of each breast is an area called the areola, usually reddish in color; at the center of this area is the nipple. About 20 separate lactiferous ducts empty into a depression at the top of the nipple. Each duct leads from alveoli within the breast called lobules, where the milk is secreted. Along their length, the ducts have widened areas that form reservoirs in which milk can be stored. The ducts and lobules form the glandular tissue of the breasts. Connective tissue covers the glandular tissue and is itself sheathed in a layer of fatty tissue. The fatty tissue gives the breast its smooth outline and contributes to its size and firmness.
Breast, with detail and cross section.
Breast self-examination. From Lowdermilk et at., 2000. 1. The best time to do breast self-examination is after your period, when breasts are not tender or swollen. If you do not have regular periods or sometimes skip a month, do it on the same day every month. 2. Lie down and put a pillow under your right shoulder. Place your right arm behind your head (Fig. 1). 3. Use the finger pads of your three middle fingers on your left hand to feel for lumps or thickening. Your finger pads are the top third of each finger. 4. Press firmly enough to know how your breast feels. If you're not sure how hard to press, ask your health care provider, or try to copy the way your health care provider uses the finger pads during a breast examination. Learn what your breast feels like most of the time. A firm ridge in the lower curve of each breast is normal. 5. Move around the breast in a set way. You can choose either circles (Fig. 2, A), vertical lines (Fig. 2, B), or wedges (Fig. 2, C€). Do it the same way every time. It will help you to make sure that you've gone over the entire breast area and to remember how your breast feels. 6. Gently compress the nipple between your thumb and forefinger and look for discharge. 7. Now examine your left breast using the finger pads of your right hand. 8. If you find any changes, see your health care provider right away. 9. You may want to check your breasts while standing in front of a mirror right after you do your breast self-examination each month. See if there are any changes in the way your breasts look: dimpling of the skin, changes in the nipple, or redness or swelling. 10. You may also want to do an extra breast self-examination while you're in the shower (Fig. 3). Your soapy hands will glide over the wet skin, making it easy to check how your breasts feel. 11. It is important to check the area between the breast and the underarm and the underarm itself. Also examine the area above the breast to the collarbone and to the shoulder.
Surgery of the Breast. Surgical operations of the breast are done for a variety of reasons. mammoplasty refers to reconstructive surgery of the breast and includes procedures to enlarge the breasts (augmentation mammoplasty), reduce their size (reduction mammoplasty), or reconstruct one or both breasts so that they are equal in size and contour. With the advent of less radical surgery for breast malignancies, postmastectomy plastic surgery of the breast has become more commonplace. mastectomy is surgical removal of breast tissue; it is most often done to treat breast cancer. Procedures can vary from a simple lumpectomy to a radical procedure in which the surgeon removes the internal mammary chain of lymph nodes, the entire breast, the underlying pectoral muscles, and the adjacent axillary lymph nodes.
breast cancer malignancy of the breast; it is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer deaths in North American women. It currently affects 1 in 9 women in the United States (11 per cent) and is called an epidemic by authorities. The incidence of breast cancer appears to be rising each year, even though when all age groups are considered its death rate has slightly declined in the past two decades. Risk factors include age over 40, close family member with breast cancer, onset of menses before age 13 or continuation beyond age 50, nulliparity, and first child after age 30.
Breast Self-Examination. Women should train themselves to perform a simple self-examination of the breasts (see illustration). The best time for this is just after menstruation when the breasts are normally soft. If any lump in the breast can be felt, a health care provider should be consulted immediately.

As with other forms of cancer, early detection and prompt treatment of malignancy of the breast are the keys to eradication of the disease. Studies have shown that breast self-examination has contributed to earlier detection and improved survival rates. It should be done monthly; more than 90 percent of breast cancers are discovered by the patients themselves either by chance or by routine self-examination. The American Cancer Society reports that only about 69 percent of women polled in the past had done self-examination at any time during the past year and less than 29 percent did it routinely each month.

Screening should begin by age 40 and should consist of a clinical examination every year and screening mammography every one or two years. Beginning at age 50, both the clinical examination and the mammography should be done once a year. mammography is considered to be the best diagnostic method for early detection when tumors are small and not readily found by palpation. Other diagnostic techniques include thermography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computerized tomography, but none of these is believed to be as accurate as mammography. The first symptom noted is usually a lump or nodule in the breast tissue; however, dimpling of the breast skin or changes in the nipple may be noted before a lump is found. Diagnosis of a malignant tumor is confirmed by biopsy.
Treatment. Options for treatment of breast cancer are based on the clinical stage of the disease when first diagnosed or when re-evaluated. Formerly, the most common procedure was radical mastectomy. However, improvements in irradiation equipment and procedures, alternative surgical techniques that are less mutilating, and more active participation of patients in making decisions about the mode of therapy have all resulted in significant changes in the treatment of breast cancer.

Additional information can be obtained by calling the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service Hotline at 1-800-4-CANCER.
chicken breast pectus carinatum.
funnel breast pectus excavatum.
pigeon breast pectus carinatum.

pec·tus ca·ri·na·'tum

flattening of the chest on either side with forward projection of the sternum resembling the keel of a boat.

pigeon breast

A chest deformity marked by a projecting sternum, often occurring as a result of infantile rickets. Also called chicken breast.

pi′geon-breast′ed (-brĕs′tĭd) adj.

pigeon breast

Etymology: L, pipio, young bird; AS, broest, breast
a congenital structural defect characterized by a prominent anterior projection of the xiphoid and the lower part of the sternum and by a lengthening of the costal cartilages. It may cause cardiorespiratory complications but rarely warrants surgical correction. Also called pectus carinatum, pigeon chest. pigeon-breasted, adj.
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Pigeon breast
Pectus carinatum is a far less common (ratio, 1:3 to 1:13) chest wall deformity than pectus excavatum; it is more common in men (2–3:1). While it is generally asymptomatic, cardiorespiratory symptoms in the form of palpitations, dyspnea, and wheezing are not uncommon, may be accentuated during exercise and disappear after surgery. Bronchial and pulmonary symptoms of asthma and chronic bronchitis occur in 16.4% of the patients. Because the physical deformity can evoke ridicule from their peers, these patients are often introverted with low self-esteem and tend to avoid appearing in public venues or engaging in sports in which they may have to remove their shirts. Some degree of kyphosis is present in most patients
Physical examination Anterior displacement of the sternum, adjacent cartilage, and anterior rib cage due to abnormal pulling by respiratory muscles on soft bone, enlargement of costochondral junctions and flattening of thorax, a finding typical of advanced rickets, deep depression of the costal cartilage on each side of the sternum; it is most apparent below the nipple, involving the 4th to 7-8th costal cartilages

pi·geon chest

(pij'ŏn chest)
An abnormality of the thoracic cage that gives a convex appearance to the anterior chest.
Synonym(s): pigeon breast.


1. The upper anterior aspect of the chest.
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BREAST: Structure of mammary glands
2. The mammary gland, a compound alveolar gland consisting of 15 to 20 lobes of glandular tissue separated from each other by interlobular septa. Each lobe is drained by a lactiferous duct that opens onto the tip of the nipple. The mammary gland secretes milk used for nourishment of the infant. For purposes of description, the female breast is divided into four quadrants: upper inner (the top medial quarter), lower inner (the bottom medial quarter), upper outer (the top lateral quarter), and the lower outer (the bottom lateral quarter). The tail of the breast extends up and away from the upper outer quadrant. See: illustration; mammary gland; milk


During puberty, estrogens from the ovary stimulate growth and development of the duct system. During pregnancy, progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum and placenta acts synergistically with estrogens to bring the alveoli to complete development. After parturition, prolactin in conjunction with adrenal steroids initiates lactation, and oxytocin from the posterior pituitary induces ejection of milk. Sucking or milking reflexly stimulates both milk secretion and discharge of milk.

Changes in Pregnancy

During the first 6 to 12 weeks, there is fullness and tenderness, erectile tissue develops in the nipples, nodules are felt, pigment is deposited around the nipple (primary areola) (in blondes the areolae and nipples become darker pink; in brunettes they become dark brown and sometimes even black), and a few drops of fluid may be squeezed out. During the next 16 to 20 weeks, the secondary areola shows small whitish spots in pigmentation due to hypertrophy of the sebaceous glands (glands of Montgomery).

caked breast

An accumulation of milk in the secretory ducts of the breast after delivery, causing a large area to become inflamed, hard, and tender.

chicken breast

A deformity in which the sternum projects anteriorly; caused by rickets or obstructed respiration in childhood. Synonym: pigeon breast

pigeon breast

Chicken breast.illustrationillustration

Pigeon breast (also known as pectus carinatum)

A chest shape with a central projection resembling the keel of a boat.
Mentioned in: Cutis Laxa


a member of the family Columbidae which also includes the doves. The domestic pigeons are generally gray, medium-sized birds which exist in a large number of breeds and races including Romans, Jacobins, tumblers, fantails, pouters, carrier pigeons and turtle-doves.

pigeon berry
pigeon breast
deep-seated abscesses in the pectoral muscles of horses. Called also pectoral abscess.
pigeon-breeder's lung
see bird-fancier's lung.
carrier pigeon
pigeon with strong homing instincts used to carry messages over relatively long distances. Produced by breeding and selection between races of domestic pigeons. See also homing pigeon (below).
pigeon circovirus
the cause of lethargy, respiratory and gastrointestinal signs and poor racing performance in young pigeons.
pigeon fly
a member of the parasitic fly family Hippoboscidae or louse fly and an important parasite of domestic pigeon. Called also Pseudolynchia canariensis.
pigeon grass
panicum whitei, setaria spp.
pigeon herpesvirus
the cause of respiratory disease (coryza) in domestic pigeons.
homing pigeon
pigeon with strong homing instincts used in racing and as a carrier pigeon (above). Produced by breeding and selection between races of domestic pigeon.
pigeon pox
slender (small) pigeon louse
pigeon strongyle
pigeon toed
a condition in which the toes are turned inwards.

Patient discussion about pigeon breast

Q. i ate a piece of chicken breast and bone is stuck in my throat what to do

A. You should seek medical treatment - if it's stuck high enough the may be to remove it with simple maneuver. Otherwise, the may use endocscopy (a pipe-like device with a camera that helps to get the bone out). It may cause problems such as tearing and causing a hole in your throat or your digestive tract, so it should be removed.

More discussions about pigeon breast
References in periodicals archive ?
Season the pigeon breasts with salt and pepper, add to the pan with one tablespoon of the oil and fry for about two minutes on each side.
How about tucking in to pan-fried pigeon breast, thyme mash, ham lardons, braised shallots, wild mushrooms and game jus?
My partner Phil - ever the adventurer - decided to go with the pigeon breast starter (pounds 6) with pigeon beignet, confit and onions.
The wood pigeon breast that I chose as a starter was precisely cooked so that it was pink, tender and gamey.
She spent pounds 250,000 on a festive party at a rented Knightsbridge townhouse, which included a menu featuring pigeon breast, Scottish beef, pheasant and baked dark chocolate torte.
Also among the starters were sauteed pigeon breast on black pudding mash with roasted beetroot and balsamic red wine sauce (which sounded extremely tempting) and watermelon, feta and olive salad with lime marinated red onions, which I saw floating past on its way to another table.
Next up was a pleasant carrot and coriander soup, then the aforementioned seared pigeon breast served over a vanilla mixed berry compote.
I started with one of my favourites - flash-fried pigeon breast on a black pudding, with a fig-and-port dressing," the man they call Luggy wrote in a recent column, having previously declared an interest in "loin of venison with charred vegetables, dauphinoise potatoes and an excellent cassis sauce" and sung the praises of Chateuneuf-Du-Pape wine.
Starters include seared wood pigeon breast with vanilla risotto and Parmesan crisp and tasty mains feature wild sea bass with clam and mussel butter, sun dried tomato and green bean linguine.
Portuguese cured pork loin, browned celery, figs flavoured with sherry, pigeon breast with juniper, bellota acorn-fed ham.
My dining companion was fairly happy with his pigeon breast accompanied by cabbage and bacon, although he thought the bird would have been more succulent had it been cooked for just a minute less.