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Related to phenazopyridine: phenazopyridine hydrochloride, Macrobid


a urinary tract analgesic, used as the hydrochloride salt; administered orally.


(fen-az-oh-peer-i-deen) ,


(trade name),


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Pyridium Plus

(trade name),

UTI Relief

(trade name)


Therapeutic: nonopioid analgesics
Pharmacologic: urinary tract analgesics
Pregnancy Category: B


Provides relief from the following urinary tract symptoms, which may occur in association with infection or following urologic procedures:
  • Pain,
  • Itching,
  • Burning,
  • Urgency,
  • Frequency.


Acts locally on the urinary tract mucosa to produce analgesic or local anesthetic effects.
Has no antimicrobial activity.

Therapeutic effects

Diminished urinary tract discomfort.


Absorption: Appears to be well absorbed following oral administration.
Distribution: Unknown. Small amounts cross the placenta.
Metabolism and Excretion: Rapidly excreted unchanged in the urine.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile (urinary analgesia)

POunknown5–6 hr6–8 hr


Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity;Glomerulonephritis;Severe hepatitis, uremia, or renal failure;Renal insufficiency;Glucose-6–phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
Use Cautiously in: Hepatitis; Obstetric / Lactation: Safety not established.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • headache
  • vertigo


  • hepatotoxicity
  • nausea


  • bright-orange urine (most frequent)
  • renal failure


  • rash


  • hemolytic anemia
  • methemoglobinemia


Drug-Drug interaction

None significant.


Oral (Adults) 200 mg 3 times daily for 2 days.
Oral (Children) 4 mg/kg 3 times daily for 2 days.

Availability (generic available)

Tablets: 95 mgOTC, 100 mg, 100 mgOTC, 200 mgOTC, 200 mg

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess patient for urgency, frequency, and pain on urination prior to and throughout therapy.
  • Lab Test Considerations: Renal function should be monitored periodically during course of therapy.
    • Interferes with urine tests based on color reactions (glucose, ketones, bilirubin, steroids, protein).

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Acute pain (Indications)
Impaired urinary elimination (Indications)


  • Medication should be discontinued after pain or discomfort is relieved (usually 2 days for treatment of urinary tract infection). Concurrent antibiotic therapy should continue for full prescribed duration.
  • Oral: Administer medication with or following meals to decrease GI irritation. Do not crush, break, or chew tablet.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient to take medication exactly as directed. If a dose is missed, take as soon as remembered unless almost time for next dose.
  • Advise patient that while phenazopyridine administration is stopped once pain or discomfort is relieved, concurrent antibiotic therapy must be continued for full duration of therapy. Do not save unused portion of phenazopyridine without consulting health care professional.
  • Inform patient that drug causes reddish-orange discoloration of urine that may stain clothing or bedding. Sanitary napkin may be worn to avoid clothing stains. May also cause staining of soft contact lenses.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional if rash, skin discoloration, or unusual tiredness occurs.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decrease in pain and burning on urination.


/phen·a·zo·pyr·i·dine/ (fen″ah-zo-pir´ĭ-dēn) a urinary tract analgesic, used as the hydrochloride salt.


an azo dye, used as a urinary analgesic and antiseptic in humans. Causes hemolytic anemia and hepatic injury in cats.
References in periodicals archive ?
Phenazopyridine should be used with caution especially for an infant younger than 1 month or with G6PD deficiency because of the risk for methemoglobinemia, sulfhemoglobinemia, and hemolytic anemia.
The investigators found statistically significant physician satisfaction with the use of mannitol as a bladder distention medium over oral phenazopyridine, and slightly better satisfaction compared with the use of intravenous sodium fluorescein or normal saline distention.
Majority of them were prescribed Phenazopyridine Hydrochloride (14%) for burning micturition / dysuria followed by Paracetamol (12%) than Pantoprazole (11%), Dicycloverine (10%) cases, Disodium hydrogen citrate (7%) urine alkaliser, Diclofenac (6%), Terazosin (5%), Doxazosin (4%) Finasteride (3%), Estrogen and progesterone (5%) as HRT.
Table 1: Medications That May Cause Hemolysis Treatments that can cause immune complex hemolysis * Stibophen * Chlorpromazine * Aminosalicylic acid * Isoniazid * Rifampin * Quinidine, quinine * Chlorpropamide * Immunosuppressants * Penicillins * Cephalosporins * Sulforamieds and sulfonylureas Treatments that can cause autoimmune hemolytic anemia * Methyldopa * Levodpa * Mefenamic acid * Procainamide * Diclofenac sodium Treatments that can cause oxidative hemolysis * Dapsone * Sulfasalazine * Phenacetin * Sodium perchlorate * Nitroglycerin * Phenazopyridine * Primaquine * Vitamin K analogues
Drug Description, Common Uses Ciprofloxacin Antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections, infectious diarrhea and lower respiratory tract infections Ephedrine Used to treat acute asthmatic attacks Indinavir Protease inhibitor used in the treatment of HIV-positive patients Oxypurinal Used to treat gout Phenazopyridine Pain reliever for severe urinary tract infections Sulfamethoxazole Used to treat urinary tract and inner ear infections
We suggest that patients take a urinary "anesthetizing" agent, such as phenazopyridine or flavoxate prior to the procedure and warn them about the urine color changes with these medications.
Other oral medications which may prove beneficial in treating IC include antispasmodics, such as oxybutynin (Ditropan[R]), and urinary mucosal anesthetics, such as phenazopyridine (Pyridium[R]).
There are no oral drugs approved by the FDA specifically for the treatment of IC, but a variety of drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and histamines, and the urinary tract pain reliever phenazopyridine (available by prescription as Pyridium[R], and over-the-counter as Azo-Standard[TM]) may help lessen symptoms.
A urinary analgesic, phenazopyridine, turns acidic urine orange.
The new addition to AZO's number one pharmacist-recommended line of urinary health products contains more of the leading UTI pain relieving ingredient, Phenazopyridine Hydrochloride, than any other major OTC brand.
Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) 200 mg orally with a sip of water in preoperative holding area.