explains the mathematics involved, then covers the first through third laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy, heat capacity, applications of the first law to gases, equilibrium and spontaneity for systems of constant temperature, the Gibbs function and the Planck function, the thermodynamics of systems of variable composition, applications of the Gibbs function to chemical changes, the phase rule
, the ideal solution, determination of nonelectrolyte activities and excess Gibbs functions from experimental data, calculation of partial molar quantities and excess molar quantities from experimental data, strong electrolytes, changes for Gibbs function for processes in solutions, systems subject to a gravitational or a centrifugal field and estimation of thermodynamic quantities.
From a thermodynamic perspective, consider Gibb's phase rule
(10) which tells us, for equilibrium conditions, the number of degrees of freedom, f, available to a system of c components when there are p coexisting phases present.
The number of ways (degrees of freedom) in which temperature, pressure, or concentration can be varied in such cases can be expressed by a simple equation, which Gibbs called the phase rule