Pharyngeal flap outcomes in nonsyndromic children with repaired cleft palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency.
Nasometric and aerodynamic outcome analysis of pharyngeal flap surgery for the management of velopharyngeal insufficiency.
Five of those 15 patients later required a secondary pharyngeal flap for persistent VPI, yielding a 67% success rate for correction of VPI by Furlow Z-palatoplasty in this group.
The other four patients demonstrated persistent VPI and required a secondary pharyngeal flap to successfully improve their speech.
The pharyngeal flap considered to be the "workhorse" flap in treating congenital velopharyngeal insufficiency--has been described in the literature as a reconstructive option following palatopharyngeal resections, (8) commando procedures, (9) buccopharyngectomies, (10) subtotal or total palatectomies, (2) and palatal resections.
They include the tongue flap, (6) the forehead flap, (5) the deltopectoral flap, (15) the palatal island flap, (16) the lateral pharyngeal flap, (17) the jejunal microvascular free flap, (18) and the cheek transposition flap.
Comparison of resonance outcomes after pharyngeal flap and Furlow double-opposing z-plasty for surgical management of velopharygeal incompetence.
Pharyngeal flap and sphincteroplasty for velopharyngeal insufficiency have equal outcome at 1 year postoperatively: results of a randomized trial.
The use of the posterior pharyngeal flap
in sort palate reconstruction, according to a source cited by Sinha et al, was first described by Schoenborn in 1886.
The pharyngeal flap
surgery in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency: perceptual and nasometric speech assessment.
It was determined at that time that the creation of any potential pharyngeal flap would have posed a direct risk to the carotid vasculature, and the procedure was terminated.
Surgical options include pharyngeal flap surgery, palatal lengthening, and intravelar veloplasty.