pes planus

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 [pes] (pl. pe´des) (L.)
1. foot.
2. any footlike part.
pes abduc´tus talipes valgus.
pes adduc´tus talipes varus.
pes ca´vus talipes cavus.
pes hippocam´pi a formation of two or three elevations on the ventricular surface of the hippocampus.
pes pla´nus (pes val´gus) flatfoot.
pes va´rus talipes varus.

pes pla·'nus

a condition in which the longitudinal arch is broken down, the entire sole touching the ground.
Synonym(s): flatfoot, talipes planus

pes planus

See flatfoot.

flat foot

A common (20–30% of the population) complaint, which affects many age groups. True flat feet (as defined by orthopaedists) are uncommon. Often, a parent will perceive flattening of the foot when a child first ambulates; laxity of the ligaments may result in collapse of the foot with valgus on the hind-foot, and eversion or pronation of the forefoot. Avalgus deformity of > 10% requires therapy; often a shoe will suffice as therapy. Flat foot grades are based on disability, ranging from mere strain or tenderness to osseous rigidity. The peroneal spastic flat feet variant is commonly due to abnormal coalescence between 2 or more tarsal bones, often at the calcaneocuboid, calcaneonavicular, and talocalcaneal bars.

Flat foot, acquired types
Ligamentous—Due to tendino-ligamentous trauma
Muscular—Due to poor control or incoordination (from e.g., poliomyelitis or cerebral palsy).
Osseous—Due to trauma or degeneration.
Postural—Due to internal tibial torsion as occurs in obesity, muscle fatigue, faulty footwear and/or strenuous work on feet, and arthritis.

pes planus

Flat foot, flat feet, see there.

tal·i·pes pla·nus

(tal'i-pēz plā'nŭs)
A condition in which the longitudinal arch is broken down, the entire sole touching the ground.
Synonym(s): flatfoot, pes planus.


(pes, pez) (pe'dez) plural.pedes [L.]
The foot or a footlike structure.

pes abductus

Talipes valgus.

pes adductus

Talipes varus.
Enlarge picture

pes anserinus

1. The network of branches of the facial nerve as it passes through the parotid gland
Enlarge picture
2. The combined tendinous expansions of the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus muscles at the medial border of the tibial tuberosity. See: illustration

pes cavus

Talipes arcuatus.

pes contortus

Talipes equinovarus.

pes equinovalgus

A condition in which the heel is elevated and turned laterally.

pes equinovarus

A condition in which the heel is turned inward and the foot is plantar flexed.

pes equinus

A deformity marked by walking without touching the heel to the ground. Synonym: talipes equinus

pes gigas


pes hippocampi

The lower portion of the hippocampus major.

infraorbital pes

Terminal radiating branches of the infraorbital nerve after exit from the infraorbital canal.

pes planus


pes valgus

Talipes valgus.

pes varus

Talipes varus.

pes planus


pes planus

aka flat foot an abnormally low longitudinal arch causes a greater contact area with the ground. Most do not cause problems but can result in loss of the gripping action of the toes, causing pain and discomfort during weight-bearing, especially when running. The foot becomes more rigid with age, with increased risk of later osteoarthritis. Common in children when the longitudinal arch has not yet developed.

pes planus

; pes valgus; valgus foot idiopathic, congenital or pathological foot deformity characterized by reduced sagittal height of medial longitudinal arch, and variable degrees of abnormal weight-bearing along medial border of sole of foot, rearfoot varus or valgus, forefoot varus or valgus, hallux valgus, crowding and claw deformity/retraction of lesser toes (+ associated soft-tissue and nail lesions), plantar fasciitis and plantar heel pain, and difficulty in finding shoes that fit/do not traumatize the foot; rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by marked pes planus (see Table 1)
Table 1: Diagnosis of foot function from shoe wear marks
Normal wear Outsole and heel
Posterolateral heel wear
Heavier wear across sole at treadline, especially at 1 and 2 MTPJs
Heavier wear distal to 1 MTPJ due to hallux toe off
Uniform discoloration of heel seat
Lateral discoloration at waist (corresponding to lateral midsole)
Distal discoloration due to toe pulps, 1cm from end of insole
Lining of upper
Even discoloration of posterior, medial and lateral areas of quarters
No unevenness of wear due to foot moving within shoe
No indentation or wear at lining of toe puff
No part of the upper should overhang the sole or welt
No distortion of the upper
Shallow, oblique crease corresponding to metatarsal formula and the treadline of the outsole
Symmetrical quarters
Hallux limitus/rigidus Outsole and heel
Excessive posterolateral heel wear
Excessive wear and/or spin wear marks under 2 and 5 MTPJs secondary to abductory twist
Minimal wear under 1 MTPJ but greater wear under IPJ hallux
Reduced toe spring Insole/insock
Discoloration of lateral heel seat
Heavy discoloration and wear below 2 and 5 MTPJs
Minimal discoloration and wear below 1 MTPJ
Discoloration and wear at distal phalanx of hallux
Lining of upper
Discoloration of lateral area of quarters
Excess wear of lateral vamp area in 5 MTPJ area
Excess wear of medial dorsal vamp at 1 MTPJ consistent with osteophyte formation at 1 MTPJ
Bulging of upper at the lateral/posterior quarters in the heel area
Bulging of lateral vamp over the outsole consistent with prolonged rearfoot inversion
Increased obliquity of transverse crease
Dorsal bulging of vamp in area of 1 MTPJ
Lateral drift of throat of shoe and distal drift of lateral facing in relation to medial facing
Pes cavus Outsole and heel
Excessive posterior (transverse) heel wear
Excessive wear at treadline
Minimal wear proximal and distal to treadline
Exaggerated toe spring
Heavy discoloration and wear of heel seat
Heavy discoloration and wear below 1 and 5 MTPJs
Discoloration and wear at pulps of toes, due to clawing
Lining of upper
Discoloration of medial, lateral and posterior areas of quarters
Wear of tongue lining
Wear of lining of upper toe box due to retracted toes
Bulging of upper at the posterior quarters in the heel area
Wear of upper margin of back stay
Bulging/stretching of anterior quarters due to tarsal 'humping'
Facings diverge proximally
Deep transverse crease
Dorsal bulging of vamp over toes
Pes planovalgus Outsole and heel
Posterolateral heel wear
Anterior medial heel wear
Collapse of shoe waist (shank may break)
Excessive wear under 2, 3 and 4 MTPJs
Excessive wear along distal medial area of sole
Excessive wear under 2, 3 and 4 MTPJs
Excessive wear at medial waist area
Excessive wear at 3, 4 and 5 toe pulps
Lining of upper
Discoloration of medial, lateral and posterior areas of quarters
Excess wear of medial toe box area
Bulging of upper at the medial, lateral/posterior quarters in the heel area
Bulging of medial quarter over outsole
Shallow transverse crease
Medial bulging of vamp in area of 1 MTPJ if hallux abductovalgus is present
Bulging of lateral toe box secondary to clawing of lesser toes
Medial drift of throat of shoe and distal drift of medial facing in relation to lateral facing

Note: Wear marks are always less marked in shoes made of synthetic materials.

MTPJ, metatarsophalangeal joint; IPJ, interphalangeal joint.

Patient discussion about pes planus

Q. Can flat feet be repaired by surgery? I have flat feet and I’m looking for all sorts of treatments for it- I heard there is a surgery for it- is it helpful?

A. As far as I know- they don’t treat flat feet that are asymptomatic. So first of all check if it bothers you. secondly there are 2 kinds of flat feet- rigid and flexible. There are different and treated differently. Not always a surgery (which is very painful and costly) is needed– I went to a Rolf method therapist by the advice of my orthopedic and it’s much better now. Ask an orthopedic.

Q. I think my son has flat foot, how to tell for sure? I didn't notice it before, he is 3 years old now and all shoes hurt him. Does it mean he has flat foot? what else can it be?

A. Pes planus (flat foot) is not a rare condition in toddlers, and may resolves spontaneously as the child grows. It is diagnosed clinically, i.e. by a doctor such as pediatrician or pediatric orthopedic surgeon, and radiographs are not universally indicated

More discussions about pes planus
References in periodicals archive ?
Otuz dereceden buyuk olmasi pes planus olarak degerlendirildi (Resim 2b).
Dort dereceden buyuk acilar pes planus olarak tanimlandi (Resim 2c).
CSI'ye gore 118 (%34,9), SI'ye gore 63 (%18,6), GKS'ye gore 9 (%2,6) olguda bilateral pes planus tespit edildi (Tablo 1).
sorusuna verdikleri cevaplar yonunden yapilan incelemede CSI'ye gore pes planus tanisi almis 249 ayaktan 230'u GKS'ye gore tani alamadi, GKS ile tani alan 19 ayagin ise tamami CSI'ye gore pes planus olarak tanimlandi.
SI'ye gore pes planus tespit edilen 63 olgudan arastirmaya devam etmeyi kabul eden 52'sinde cekilen yuk verilmis lateral ayak grafilerinde yapilan radyolojik olcum yontemlerinden KZA, TMA ve TZA ile elde edilen en kucuk, en buyuk ve ortalama degerler su sekideydi: KZA'da min 6, maks 29, ort 17,3 [+ or -] 4,3, TMA'da min 0, maks 21, ort 8 [+ or -] 5,4, TZA'de min 21, maks 41, ort 28,8 [+ or -] 5,0.
Ayagin MLA yuksekliginin azalmasi veya tamamen kaybolmasi pes planus olarak tanimlanir (1,2).
Pes planus, hipertan siyon, diyabet, tendon etrafina steroid enjeksiyonu ve spondilar tropati varligi da posterior tibial tendon disfonksiyonu gelisimi icin risk faktorleridir.
Evre 2; fonksiyon kaybina bagli daha fazla yakinma, pes planus olus masi veya olan deformitede artis vardir, deformite pasif olarak du zeltilebilir.