pertussis


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Related to pertussis: Bordetella pertussis

pertussis

 [per-tus´is]

per·tus·sis

(per-tŭs'is),
An acute infectious inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi caused by Bordetella pertussis; characterized by recurrent bouts of spasmodic coughing that continues until the breath is exhausted, then ending in a noisy inspiratory stridor (the "whoop") caused by laryngeal spasm.
[L. per, very (intensive), + tussis, cough]

pertussis

/per·tus·sis/ (per-tus´is) whooping cough; an infectious disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, marked by catarrh of the respiratory tract and peculiar paroxysms of cough, ending in a prolonged crowing or whooping respiration.

pertussis

(pər-tŭs′ĭs)
per·tus′sal adj.

pertussis

[pərtus′is]
Etymology: L, per + tussis, cough
an acute, highly contagious respiratory disease characterized by paroxysmal coughing that ends in a loud whooping inspiration. It occurs primarily in infants and in children less than 4 years of age who have not been immunized. The causative organism, Bordetella pertussis, is a small, nonmotile gram-negative coccobacillus. A similar organism, B. parapertussis, causes a less severe form of the disease called parapertussis. Also called whooping cough.
observations Transmission occurs directly by contact or inhalation of infectious particles, usually spread by coughing and sneezing, and indirectly by contact with freshly contaminated articles. Diagnosis consists of positive identification of the organism in nasopharyngeal secretions. The initial stages of the disease are difficult to distinguish from bronchitis or influenza. A fluorescent antibody staining technique specific for B. pertussis provides an accurate means of early diagnosis. The incubation period averages 7 to 14 days, followed by 6 to 8 weeks of illness divided into three distinct stages: catarrhal, paroxysmal, and convalescent. Onset of the catarrhal stage is gradual, usually beginning with coryza, sneezing, a dry cough, a slight fever, listlessness, irritability, and anorexia. The cough becomes paroxysmal after 10 to 14 days; it occurs as a series of short rapid bursts during expiration followed by the characteristic whoop, caused by a spasm of the epiglottis, a hurried, deep inhalation that has a high-pitched crowing sound. There is usually no fever, and the respiratory rate between paroxysms is normal. During the paroxysm there is marked facial redness or cyanosis and vein distension, the eyes may bulge, the tongue may protrude, and the facial expression usually indicates severe anxiety and distress. Large amounts of a viscid mucus may be expelled during or after paroxysms, which occur from 4 to 5 times a day in mild cases and as many as 40 to 50 times a day in severe cases. Vomiting frequently occurs after the paroxysms as a result of gagging or choking on the mucus. In infants, choking may be more common than the characteristic whoop. This stage lasts from 4 to 6 weeks, with the attacks being most frequent and severe during the first 1 to 2 weeks, then gradually declining and disappearing. During the convalescent stage a simple persistent cough is usual. For a period of up to 2 years after the initial attack, paroxysmal coughing may accompany respiratory infections.
interventions Routine treatment consists of bed rest, adequate nutrition, and adequate amounts of fluid. Erythromycin or another antibacterial may be prescribed to reduce transmission or to control secondary infection. Hospitalization may be necessary for infants and children with severe or prolonged paroxysms and for those with dehydration or other complications. Oxygen may be needed to relieve dyspnea and cyanosis. IV therapy may be necessary when prolonged vomiting interferes with adequate nutrition. Intubation is rarely necessary but may be lifesaving in infants if the thick mucus cannot be easily suctioned from the air passages. Pertussis immune globulin is available, but its efficacy has not been established and its use is not recommended. Active immunization is recommended with pertussis vaccine, usually in combination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in a series of injections at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and boosters at 12 to 18 months and 4 years of age. One attack of the disease usually confers immunity, although some second, usually mild, episodes have occurred.
nursing considerations Severe paroxysms in an infant may require oxygen, suction, and intubation. The child needs to be kept calm and protected from respiratory irritants such as dirt, smoke, or dust. Overstimulation, noise, or excitement may precipitate paroxysms. Adequate nutrition and adequate fluids are encouraged through frequent small feedings. Common complications of the disease include bronchopneumonia; atelectasis; bronchiectasis; emphysema; otitis media; convulsions; hemorrhage, including subarachnoid and subconjunctival hemorrhage and epistaxis; weight loss; dehydration; hernia; prolapsed rectum; and asphyxia, especially in infants. Paroxysms can be fatal.

pertussis

Whooping cough Pediatrics An acute contagious and potentially epidemic bacterial infection caused by Bordetella pertussis–less commonly, B bronchoseptica and B parapertussis, which affects children < age 5; it causes 600,000 deaths/yr in the world Clinical Paroxysmal cough, post-tussive emesis, cyanosis, apnea, whoop Complications Pneumonia, atelectasis Diagnosis Culture, direct fluorescent antibody, lymphocytosis Management Supportive; infants may need hospitalization if coughing is severe Treatment Erythromycin, T-S Vaccine Whole cell–DPT vaccine

per·tus·sis

(pĕr-tŭs'is)
An acute infectious inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi caused by Bordetella pertussis; characterized by recurrent bouts of spasmodic coughing that continues until the breath is exhausted, then ends in a noisy inspiratory stridor (the "whoop") caused by laryngeal spasm.
Synonym(s): whooping cough.
[L. per, very (intensive), + tussis, cough]

pertussis

See WHOOPING COUGH.

per·tus·sis

(pĕr-tŭs'is)
Acute infectious inflammation of larynx, trachea, and bronchi caused by Bordetella pertussis.
Synonym(s): whooping cough.
[L. per, very (intensive), + tussis, cough]

pertussis (purtus´is),

n a disease caused by
B. pertussis in which the patient suffers from a cough that makes a “whooping” sound. Also called
whooping cough.
References in periodicals archive ?
Jennifer Maynard, associate professor in the McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at UT Austin, has conducted research to develop Pertussis therapies for more than a decade.
Although NNDSS has been essential for monitoring the national burden of pertussis and age-related trends in disease over time, data are of insufficient detail and consistency to answer reliably the many urgent questions relevant to public health.
The last California pertussis epidemic occurred in 2010 with more than 9,000 reported cases, though the incidence of pertussis has increased since the 1990s.
Michele Larsen, spokeswoman for the Oregon March of Dimes chapter, said the increase in pertussis is most harmful to infants.
It's understandable that adults may not realise they have pertussis, given the different symptoms for children and adults.
In addition to encouraging patients to get the vaccine, clinicians also are being urged to consider pertussis as a possible diagnosis in their patients who have a persistent cough, she said.
The second vote was aimed at addressing the fact that pertussis infection can occur even among those who are immunized.
However, since then there has been a steady increase, with more pertussis reported in adolescents and adults.
Media first contained blood, serum or other biological materials until it was realized that unsaturated fatty acids, which are present agar, peptones, cotton stoppers and on glassware are produced endogenously during growth are toxic to Bordetella Pertussis.
Pertussis PCR testing should only be done on individuals with clinically compatible symptoms.
A Tdap Education and Administration Program would prevent pertussis among adults and adolescents and thus protect the health and safety of infants and the population at large.
Pentacel(R) (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine(1) protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib).