peripheral resistance


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia.
Related to peripheral resistance: Total peripheral resistance

resistance

 [re-zis´tans]
1. opposition, or counteracting force, as opposition of a conductor to passage of electricity or other energy or substance.
2. the natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by noxious agents in its environment; see also immunity.
3. in psychology or psychiatry, conscious or unconscious defenses against change, preventing repressed material from coming into awareness; they can take such forms as forgetfulness, evasions, embarrassment, mental blocks, denial, anger, superficial talk, intellectualization, or intensification of symptoms. It occurs because the blocked association or understanding would be too threatening to face at this point in the therapy; identification of what point the resistance comes at can be an important indicator of the patient's unconscious patterns.
airway resistance the opposition of the tissues of the air passages to air flow: the mouth-to-alveoli pressure difference divided by the rate of air flow. Symbol RA or RAW.
androgen resistance resistance of target organs to the action of androgens, resulting in any of a spectrum of defects from a normal male phenotype in which men have normal genitalia but infertility to complete androgen resistance in which the individual has a female phenotype. Complete androgen resistance is an extreme form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which the individual is phenotypically female but is of XY chromosomal sex; there may be rudimentary uterus and tubes, but the gonads are typically testes, which may be abdominal or inguinal in position. Called also testicular feminization and testicular feminization syndrome. Incomplete androgen resistance is any of various forms less than the complete type, manifested by a male phenotype with various degrees of ambiguous genitalia such as hypospadias and a small vaginal pouch, a hooded phallus, or a bifid scrotum that may or may not contain gonads.
drug resistance the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of a drug that are lethal to most members of its species.
insulin resistance see insulin resistance.
multidrug resistance (multiple drug resistance) a phenomenon seen in some malignant cell lines: cells that have developed natural resistance to a single cytotoxic compound are also resistant to structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents. Called also cross-resistance.
peripheral resistance resistance to the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, especially the arterioles.
pulmonary vascular resistance the vascular resistance of the pulmonary circulation; the difference between the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and the left atrial filling pressure divided by the cardiac output. Called also total pulmonary vascular resistance.
total peripheral resistance the vascular resistance of the systemic circulation: the difference between the mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure divided by the cardiac output.
total pulmonary resistance (total pulmonary vascular resistance) pulmonary vascular resistance.
vascular resistance the opposition to blood flow in a vascular bed; the pressure drop across the bed divided by the blood flow, conventionally expressed in peripheral resistance units. Symbol R or R.

to·tal pe·riph·er·al re·sis·tance (TPR),

the total resistance to flow of blood in the systemic circuit; the quotient produced by dividing the mean arterial pressure by the cardiac minute-volume.

pe·riph·er·al re·sis·tance

(pĕr-if'ĕr-ăl rĕ-zis'tăns)
Resistance to blood flow through arterioles and capillaries.

peripheral resistance

the sum total of resistance to blood flow in the systemic circulation, mostly located in the arterioles, dependent on the constriction/relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls. The balance between cardiac output and total peripheral resistance determines the arterial blood pressure (BP), and physiological adjustments of either or both are the means of maintaining BP despite variations in local vasodilatation/vasoconstriction in different organs and tissues.

resistance

1. opposition, or counteracting force, as opposition of a conductor to passage of electricity or other energy or substance.
2. the natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by noxious agents in its environment. See also immunity.
3. acquired ability of a bacterium or helminth or arthropod parasite to survive in the presence of concentrations of a chemical which are normally lethal to the organisms of that species. Occurs usually as a result of prolonged growth of the organism in sublethal concentrations of the agent and the survival of the organisms which have the least innate susceptibility to the agent. Has serious implications for animals which may find themselves without a suitable remedy for a disease, and for humans who may experience transfer of a resistant organism from the food supply.
4. in studies of respiration, an expression of the opposition to flow of air produced by the tissues of the air passages, in terms of pressure per amount of air per unit of time.

drug resistance
the ability of a microorganism to withstand doses of a drug that are lethal to most members of its species.
peripheral resistance
resistance to the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, especially the arterioles.
transferable resistance
antimicrobial resistance genes carried by bacteria on plasmids or transposons can often be readily acquired by other strains of the same species, by different species, and sometimes by organisms in different genera. Of considerable import in consideration of the implications of antimicrobial therapy in animal populations and in public health. The full significance is difficult to ascertain.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is noteworthy that total peripheral resistance (indexed by the resistance of the vasculature to blood flow) and cardiac output directly affect blood pressure (Miller et al.
Blood pressure (Korotkoff phases I and V) and cardiac output (electrical impedance cardiography) were measured non-invasively, while mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated according to standard procedures (Be lz et al.
Vascular peripheral resistance and compliance in the lobster Homarus americanus.
Mean blood pressure (BP) is influenced by heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV) and total peripheral resistance (TPR): Mean BP = HR x SV x TPR.
SBP: Systolic blood pressure, DBP: Diastolic blood pressure, HR: Heart rate, CO: Cardiac output, SV: Stroke volume, SPR: Systemic peripheral resistance, CI: Cardiac index, SI: Stroke volume index, SVRI: Systemic vascular resistance index
Vasodilation decreases total peripheral resistance, while a decrease in cardiac contractility decreases cardiac output.
The proposed mechanism of action was that high levels of plasma homocysteine increased peripheral resistance narrowing the lumen of the arteries by causing an accumulation of phosphates, cholesterol and triglycerides to the area damaged by homocysteine.
During treadmill walking, HR and Q increase with a concomitant decrease in systemic total peripheral resistance so that there is only a small elevation in MAP or no measurable change (Bogaard et al.
Therefore, an increase or decrease in either cardiac output or total peripheral resistance will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in mean aortic pressure (Smith & Kampine, 1990, p.
No changes were registered in the other cardiovascular parameters monitored, including blood pressure, cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, as well as peripheral resistance.
Deep breathing increases the sensitivity of the cardiac and vascular baroreflex, leading to lower blood pressures, increased heart rate variability, decreased peripheral resistance, and increased venous return, said Dr.
The more constricted the vessels, the greater the peripheral resistance.