perineural invasion


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perineural invasion

Surgical pathology Extension of epithelial cells around nerves which, while typical of malignancy, may be seen in sclerosing adenosis–breast, and is not per se an indication of malignancy.
References in periodicals archive ?
269,271) Macrophages have been shown to stimulate Axl-mediated invasion (272) and perineural invasion through production of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF).
Perineural invasion had a tendency to be an independent factor, but this finding did not reach statistical significance (P =.
Perineural invasion, positive surgical margins, local recurrence, and distant metastasis were observed in 50 (75.
14) In the present study, locoregional recurrence was seen in 67% of patients with perineural invasion and only 19% of patients without.
For cancer cases, the highest Gleason grade, extent of disease, and presence of perineural invasion was recorded.
The prognostic impact of perineural invasion has been investigated in several studies, (25, 60-62) the results of which have been mixed.
Many areas of lymphovascular and perineural invasion were seen.
Vasculo-lymphatic and perineural invasion was observed, as was multifocal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in a background of nodular hyperplasia and atrophy.
Focal perineural invasion by the tumor nests was present (figure 2, B).
16) The presence of any tumor with a Gleason pattern of 4 and perineural invasion is predictive of significant tumor burden and possible extraprostatic extension on RP; thus, this pattern may be a contraindication for surveillance.
Despite the clear resection margins, the patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy because of the perineural invasion.
Recent studies have demonstrated the independent prognostic significance of several microscopic features, such as venous invasion (7-9) and perineural invasion (PNI), (10,11) which have now been included as mandatory elements on the College of American Pathologists checklist.