Pericardial tamponade can be encountered in many conditions and pericardiocentesis performed as urgent treatment is life-saving.
Pericardial tamponade is most commonly caused by malignencies and traumas.
The subcostal 4-chamber view is mainly used to eliminate obvious pathological states such as pericardial tamponade and acute pulmonary artery hypertension; parasternal long-axis and short-axis views' focus on the qualitative assessment of ventricular wall thickness, chamber diameter, left ventricular systolic function, and segmental dyskinesia; and inferior vena cava (IVC) and apical 4-chamber views are used to qualitatively evaluate the state of volume (apparent low volume and volume overload) and fluid responsiveness.
Although there are ultrasonic temponade signs, such as pericardial effusion, end-systolic right atrial collapse, early-diastolic right ventricular collapse, the clockwise rotation of the heart, and IVC expansion, the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade depends on its hemodynamic consequences.
Cardiac Surgeons at the Montreal Heart Institute have published a report featured in this month's Annals of Thoracic Surgery detailing how active clearance of chest tubes in the ICU non surgically treated a life-threatening episode of pericardial tamponade
in a patient recovering from heart surgery (Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 101: 1159-1163, 2016), US-based medical device maker ClearFlow Inc said.
22] In under-resourced areas, emergency pericardiocentesis in a haemodynamically unstable patient may be necessary without ultrasound guidance, provided the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade
is established as accurately as clinically possible.
However, a catheter tip within the SCV (on a chest X-ray) may also erode the vessel and cause either mediastinal haematoma, pleural infusion or pericardial tamponade
In 1991, Aaland (3) reported a case of delayed pericardial tamponade
following penetrating chest injury, and a literature review yielded seven similar cases reported since 1950.
Migration of the centrally placed venous lines leading to potential complications such as mediastinal haematoma (1), pericardial tamponade
(2) and pleural effusion (3) have been reported.
Third, our patient had a purulent pericardial infection yet had no symptoms or signs of pericardial infection, by history or clinical examination, resembling acute pericarditis or pericardial tamponade
secondary to thrombosis in the mediastinum required chest exploration immediately after surgery.
The subxyphoid pericardial window should be used to confirm the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade
in stable patients if results of ultrasonography or echocardiography are equivocal.