Over the last two decades, EBUS has emerged as a highly effective and minimally invasive technique for sampling peribronchial
, mediastinal, and lung masses for pathologic examination.
According to several studies, (28-31) tumor restricted to the peribronchial
or perivascular soft tissue at the margin, or the presence of lymphatic permeation alone at the margin, is also prognostically important.
Its definition includes calcified peribronchial
lymph nodes that cause adjacent airway distortion and/or obstruction.
Initially only interstitial oedema develops, seen as peribronchial
cuffing on chest radiographs.
An adjacent peribronchial
lymph node was positive for tumour (pN1), however due to the poorly differentiated morphology of the tumour cells it was unclear as to which tumour it originated.
In parallel and preceding the increases in BAL fluid, allergen sensitization and airway challenge lead to an increase in peribronchial
inflammation and goblet cell numbers compared to mice that were challenged only (Fig.
It is characterized by peribronchial
, perivascular, and perilymphatic proliferation of atypical smooth muscle, resulting in vascular and airway obstruction, cyst formation, and a progressive decline in lung function.
thickening and interstitial infiltrates were present in the left parahilar area.
A computed tomography chest scan (Figure 1) showed extensive surgical emphysema, perivascular and peribronchial
emphysema which was consistent with a diagnosis of pulmonary interstitial emphysema.
The inflammatory infiltrate was ill-defined and could be found in the peribronchial
and interstitial area of the lung.
Intratracheal instillation of carbon nanotube particles in mice, has shown that carbon nanotubes have the potential to cause varied lung pathologies like epitheloid granuloma, interstitial inflammation, peribronchial
inflammation and necrosis of lung.
Diagnostic capability was assessed by the ability of the two modalities to demonstrate the following pleural, mediastinal or pulmonary pathologies: (i) pneumothorax, (ii) pleural effusion, (iii) mediastinal adenopathy, (iv) consolidation, (v) atelectasis, (vi) bronchial wall thickening, (vii) peribronchial
infiltrates, (viii) pulmonary air cysts, (ix) pulmonary nodules, and (x) an interstitial pulmonary pattern.