The FEAR system involves central regions of the amygdala, anterior and medial regions of the hypothalamus, and dorsal regions of the periaqueductal
Typically, MRI scan results are symmetrical lesions in the mammillary bodies, thalami, tectal plate, and periaqueductal
area which showed increased T2 signal in these sites.
The CnF also has a relation with the periaqueductal
gray matter and the NTS.
gray matter dysfunction in migraine: Cause or the burden of illness?
Regarding mechanism, it is believed that the somatic (as opposed to the drug craving) symptoms of opiate withdrawal in the adult arise from areas of the brainstem called the locus coeruleus and periaqueductal
gray, which express opiate receptors.
gray matter), mammillary bodies, and tissue surrounding the third ventricle (3) (Lenz et al.
The CRH and its receptors are found in many regions involved in anxiety and depression disorders (PFC, cingulate, insular, amygdala, HC and periaqueductal
Chronic running wheel activity attenuates the antinociceptive actions of morphine and morphine-6-glucouronide administration into the periaqueductal
gray in rats.
The neural signals generated by the bladder and urethra are transmitted to midbrain periaqueductal
gray substance through the spinal cord, then projected to the pontine micturition center and the cerebrum (13).
Additionally, in the assessment by immunofluorescence for Fos protein on animal brains, we demonstrated that there was an increase of Fos protein expression, when compared to control, in the ventrolateral area of periaqueductal
gray (PAG) (p <0.
A down-regulation of preprodynorphin (PPD) mRNA level in the spinal cord, periaqueductal
grey matter and the hypothalamus was observed after injection of morphine, and reversed by multiple sessions of EA.
The TCC also has reciprocal connections with other parts of the brainstem, including the ventromedial medulla (VMM) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal
gray (VLPAG), and hypothalamic areas.