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The progressing erosion uncovered the dental pulp, caused inflammation and the formation of periapical abscesses.
Intra oral x-ray unit,Pulp testers,Automatic periapical x-ray developer,General x- ray unit,Ortho Pantamograph unit (with digital cephalometric),Lead aprons,Lead gloves,x-ray hangers (each for 10 IOPA films),Auto clave (front loading having wet and dry cycle and can achieve 130 degree Celsius) with capacity of 20 liters,Intra oral camera (with high resolution),x-ray viewer,Radio Visio graphic unit (digital intra oral x-ray system with one sensor and software) Period of contract : 30 days
3 Sinusitis can result from the spread of a periapical or periodontal infection to the sinus or iatrogenic perforation of the sinus floor.
Oral lesions are common in diabetic patients (especially periapical abscesses and lichen planus).
This book explains theoretical and technical aspects of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics and how it differs from traditional periapical projection radiography.
Because of its positive qualities like being non-toxic to periapical tissues, and its safe use with children, but considering its negative characteristics such as not having an antibacterial effect and not removing the smear layer, sterile saline solution is used in combination with other irrigation solutions (24,25).
intraoral periapical radiography (IOPAR), orthopantomography (OPG), occlusal radiography, conventional tomography, computed tomography (CT), and cone-beam CT (CBCT).
It was clearly visible from the preoperative periapical radiography.
are present as normal inhabitants, and thus, are frequently reported in teeth presenting with primary pulpal and periapical infections and also in unhealed periapical lesions (6, 7).
Background: The evaluation of periapical radiographic evidence of these foramina might be helpful to avoid hemorrhaging of the highly vascularized regions of the floor of the mouth.
Study inclusion criteria were as follows: periapical radiographs of mandibular first and second molars with radiographic furcation involvement (molars with restorations covering the CEJ were only included if the same restorations were present in subsequent x-rays); clear anatomical landmarks allowing for linear measurements to be taken between the fixed reference point (CEJ or restoration margin, fornix) and the radiographic apex; a minimum 5-year history of radiographs; comprehensive information on age, gender, presence of a medical conditions, tobacco use status, compliance with and frequency of periodontal treatment recommendations.
Periapical and bitewing radiographs had similar retake rates of 5.