LAIs can happen as a result of inhalation or ingestion, percutaneous inoculation
, and direct contact with samples or with contaminated surfaces--all of which can be minimized through the use of proper PPE.
No environmental risk factors, such as the percutaneous inoculation
of contaminated material, ingestion, or inhalation, which are the main routes of transmission of melioidosis, were reported (1).
typically produces ulceroglandular tularemia, characterized by a cutaneous ulcer at the site of inoculation and tender regional lymphadenopathy.
vi) Persons who have been exposed in the preceding 12 months to known or suspected HIV-infected blood through percutaneous inoculation
or through contact with an open wound, nonintact skin, or mucous membrane.
Proposed mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of cryptococcal peritonitis include direct percutaneous inoculation
of contaminating organisms during repeated paracentesis for management of ascites, hematogenous spread from a pulmonary site, and hematogenous spread from the alimentary tract facilitated by upper GI bleeding.
Melioidosis is thought to be caused predominantly by percutaneous inoculation
with the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei; however, inhalation, aspiration, and ingestion of the bacterium can also occur (1).
This report summarizes two recent cases of WNV infection in laboratory workers without other known risk factors who acquired infection through percutaneous inoculation
pseudomallei is present in soil and water and can cause infection through inhalation, aspiration, ingestion, or percutaneous inoculation
intravenous injection through inadvertent reuse of HIV-contaminated infusion paraphernalia or percutaneous inoculation
through an unwitnessed needlestick injury).
The only reported episodes of percutaneous inoculation
in Singapore were a few young adults with localized cutaneous infections and abscesses caused by occupational exposure to soil (4).
Human infections are mostly acquired through percutaneous inoculation
during contact with contaminated water and soil, although inhalation is also a recognized route of acquisition (1).
is presumably the main method of infection, although inhalation and insect and mammal bites and scratches, especially from armadillos and cats, have been implicated (3,4).