It can help in measuring the size of kidneys and extent of renal damage, it can detect renal calculus and its size, hydronephrosis and its extent, any dilatation of pelvicalyceal
system, or renal cystitis, abscess, calculus and residual post-voidal urine in bladder or any changes in renal parenchyma.
18]FDG from pelvicalyceal
system limits the sensitivity and specificity of the procedure in diagnosing urothelial cancers.
4] Furthermore, a sterile voided urine does not preclude the presence of pathogens in the urine in pelvicalyceal
system  or the development of postoperative bacteriuria.
In this study we presented a 54-year-old female patient, who had right flank pain and macroscopic hematuria complaint for a month and had, grade 3 pelvicalyceal
dilatation on the right side, filling defect in the right ureterovesical junction according to their intravenous pyelography.
Right kidney was atrophic but still functioning without pelvicalyceal
Some cases of urothelial carcinoma arising from the pelvicalyceal
system may also be positive for PAX8, highlighting the necessity of using this marker as part of a panel dictated by the histologic features on hematoxylineosin stain.
On delayed images, there was no excretion of contrast into pelvicalyceal
system and ureters on both sides.
After opacification of the pelvicalyceal
system through contrast injection in the existing nephrostomy, a puncture of the opposite pole was performed and a guidewire was then advanced through the puncture needle, followed by the dilator/sheath complex.
Inclusion criteria were 2 to 5 cm sized calculi, moderate to severe dilatation of pelvicalyceal
system, willingness of the patients to accept conversion into open surgical procedure in case of difficulty in achieving stone clearance with PCNL and acceptance by the patients to undergo subsequent ESWL with or without JJ stenting.
A repeat ultrasound at one year follow-up again showed normal pelvicalyceal
system and normal serum creatinine.
Fatty liver and slight dilatation of the pelvicalyceal
system of the kidney located cranially, which was caused by aureteral stone, were also found.
Severe hydronephosis was defined as the loss of renal cortex with dilated pelvicalyceal