pediculosis


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Related to pediculosis: pediculosis pubis, pediculosis capitis

pediculosis

 [pĕ-dik″u-lo´sis]
infestation with lice (see louse). Lice live on the host's blood, obtained by piercing the skin and sucking the blood through the mouth part. The area bitten itches and may become sore and infected from scratching. Not only are lice an annoyance, but they also transmit some diseases, such as typhus.
Treatment. Head lice hatch eggs in silvery oval-shaped envelopes that attach to the shafts of the hairs. The eggs, called nits, can be removed with some difficulty by combing with a very fine-toothed comb. The lice and nits are effectively killed by applications of 1 per cent gamma benzene hexachloride (Kwell) in a cream or shampoo, lindane, permethrin cream or rinse, or pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide liquid, gel, or shampoo.
pediculosis pu´bis infestation with lice of the species Phthirus pubis, the crab louse, usually limited to the pubic hairs but sometimes involving other hairy areas such as the eyelashes, eyebrows, or axillae. It is usually transmitted sexually but may be contracted from bedding and clothing. On the body, it can be treated with a special cream, lotion, or shampoo, such as Kwell, twice daily for two weeks. If the eyelashes are involved, a thick layer of petrolatum should be applied. Called also crabs and phthiriasis.

pe·dic·u·lo·sis

(pĕ-dik'yū-lō'sis),
The state of being infested with lice.
[L. pediculus, louse, + G. -osis, condition]

pediculosis

/pe·dic·u·lo·sis/ (pĕ-dik″u-lo´sis) infestation with lice of the family Pediculidae, especially Pediculus humanus.

pediculosis

(pə-dĭk′yə-lō′sĭs)
n.
Infestation with lice.

pe·dic′u·lous (-ləs) adj.

pediculosis

[pədik′yoo͡lō′sis]
Etymology: L, pediculus + osis, condition
an infestation with blood-sucking lice. Pediculosis capitis is infestation of the scalp with lice. Pediculosis corporis is infestation of the skin of the body with lice. Pediculosis palpebrarum is infestation of the eyelids and eyelashes with lice. Pthirus pubis (formerly called pediculosis pubis) is infestation of the pubic hair region with lice. An over-the-counter treatment is pyrethrin or permethrin containing topical agents. Malathion and lindane are other treatments, although misuse can result in neurotoxicity. See also crab louse, lice.
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Pediculosis corporis

pediculosis

Infestation with lice. See Louse.

pe·dic·u·lo·sis

(pĕ-dik'yū-lō'sis)
The state of being infested with lice.
[L. pediculus, louse, + G. -osis, condition]

pediculosis

(pe-dik?u-lo'sis) [? + Gr. osis, condition]
Infestation with lice. See: Pediculus
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PEDICULOSIS CAPITIS
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PEDICULOSIS CAPITIS

pediculosis capitis

A scalp infection caused by head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, a common parasite in children. Outbreaks are common in schools, esp. among children between the ages of 5 and 11. The infection is transmitted through use of personal items such as hair ornaments, combs, hairbrushes, hats, scarves, or coats or through direct contact between the heads of two children. Lice, which feed on blood obtained by biting the skin, cause itching, esp. around the ears, in the occipital area, and at the nape of the neck. Long-standing infestations may produce chronic inflammation. The adult louse is seen rarely; diagnosis usually is made through the presence of eggs (nits), which appear as whitish sacs attached to the hair. See: illustration

Symptoms

Itching and eczematous dermatitis. In long-standing, neglected cases, scratching may result in marked inflammation. Secondary infection by bacteria may occur, with formation of pustules, crusts, and suppuration. Hair may become matted and malodorous.

Treatment

Therapies for lice infestations are modified frequently, to match the resistance of lice to current therapies and to minimize the toxicities of medications. Manual removal of lice always is appropriate and is strongly recommended by lice specialists. Others recommend the use of insecticides (pediculocides).

Patient care

The patient and family are taught how to apply medication (lindane, permethrin, pyrethrins, piperonyl butoxide, malathion) to dry hair for lice and are warned that the eyes should be immediately flushed with copious amounts of water if the medication accidentally contacts them. They are informed about minimizing the spread of infection by washing or dry cleaning all clothing and linen used in the home, delousing of rugs and upholstered furniture with sprays or vacuuming, keeping combs and brushes separate, and using medicinal shampoos if there has been contact with the patient.

illustration

pediculosis corporis

Pediculosis caused by the body louse, Pediculus humanus. It is transmitted by direct contact or by wearing infested clothing and is often transmitted in crowded or unhygienic conditions. The body louse occasionally is the vector for several important transmissible illnesses, including epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever.

Symptoms

Infestation with body lice is marked by intense itching, esp. on the neck, trunk, and thighs. Tiny hemorrhagic points identify the bites. Generalized excoriation, mild fever, and fatigue characterize heavy infestations. In severe cases, pustules may develop.

Treatment

The patient first bathes with hot soap and water and then applies prescribed creams containing approved pesticides to affected areas.

Patient care

The patient should be assessed for diseases that body lice may transmit. If the patient is homeless or impoverished, social services agencies should be contacted to assist him or her to find shelter and clean clothing. If the patient lives with others, close personal contacts or family members should be screened for lice. All clothing, furniture, rugs, and bedding must be washed with hot water or dry cleaned. To prevent transmission of pediculosis among hospitalized patients, all high-risk patients should be examined for evidence of hair or body lice infestation on admission. Health care professionals should be careful to include older adults who are dependent on others for care, those coming from nursing homes or other assisted living facilities, and people living in crowded conditions.

pediculosis palpebrarum

Infestation by lice of the eyebrows and eyelashes.

pediculosis pubis

Pediculosis caused by Phthirus pubis, also known as crab lice. It is transmitted by direct contact and through bedding or shared towels. The pubic louse can also infest the axillae, eyelashes, and head hair. The patient can present with pruritus. On occasion visual identification of the lice may be seen in pubic hair as oval attachments on pubic hair shafts, black dots (feces) on skin and underwear, or crusts or scabs in pubic area from scratching. Treatment is the same as for other ectoparasitic (skin parasite) infestations.

pediculosis

Any kind of louse infestation.

Pediculosis (plural, pediculoses)

The medical term for infestation with lice.
Mentioned in: Lice Infestation

pediculosis

louse infestation

pediculosis

louse infestation.
References in periodicals archive ?
The economic burden of pediculosis pubis and scabies infections treated on an outpatient basis in the United States: evidence from private insurance claims data, 2001-2005.
Pediculosis capitis (head lice infestation) affects between 1% and 3% of 6- to 12-year-olds in industrialised nations, but the diagnostic accuracy of visual inspection and wet combing has not been determined appropriately.
More on lice is at National Pediculosis Association's www.
The East Coast licensing agreements will make Hair Fairies the only chain in the country that addresses head lice infestation, officially known as pediculosis, Botham said.
According to the National Pediculosis Association (NPA), "Pediatric Dermatology cites various studies that suggest the incidence among African-American school-children is less than one half of one percent, while the incidence among non-black schoolmates is usually more than ten percent.
The sale of louse treatment products is big business--over $90 million yearly, according to the National Pediculosis Association (NPA).
Global Markets Direct's, 'Pediculosis (Head Lice Infestation) - Pipeline Review, H1 2012', provides an overview of the Pediculosis (Head Lice Infestation) therapeutic pipeline.
Bristol-Burlington and East Windsor still maintain "no nit" policies, a position supported by the National Pediculosis Association in a lobbying organization in Newton, Massachusetts.
The National Pediculosis Association in Massachusetts is opposed to relaxing bans on lice and blames the updated policies for spreading the bugs.
To the Editor: Pediculosis capitis has been well-known since antiquity (1).
Caused by Pediculosis capitis, the infection mostly affects the back of the scalp (occipital region) or behind the ears (post-auricular).