peak and trough

peak and trough

The highest and lowest concentrations of a drug in plasma. Measurement of peak and trough drug levels are used to determine whether an intravenously administered medication is consistently within therapeutic range. The trough is drawn just before a drug is scheduled to be given; the peak is drawn after the drug is administered (30 to 60 min after infusion). These measurements may guide therapy in the use of potentially toxic medications, e.g., aminoglycosides, which can have serious adverse effects if therapeutic levels are exceeded or can fail to work effectively if adequate drug levels are not attained.
References in periodicals archive ?
5, the positions of peak and trough of the hue histogram is invariable against the rotation change, the scale change, the illumination change, the distortion by perspective projection and occlusion.
However, the peak and trough indicated by our index lag the NBER's dates by four months.
The analysis released on June 5 looked at the peak and trough for median home prices in those counties, as well as the month when they occurred.
An opportunity was identified to educate nurses regarding the appropriate timing of administration for vancomycin and aminoglycoside in relation to obtaining peak and trough levels.
Pharmacokinetic indices, including peak and trough levels of genatmicin, were determined as described previously (13).
As a result, many physicians were trained to monitor peak and trough vancomycin levels to minimize its side effects and to maximize its effectiveness.
The difference in risk between the children at the peak and trough of susceptibility was 15%.
In a recent working paper, BEA economist Bruce Grimm found that the four monthly measures do not fully agree with the committee's peak and trough months.
Tables 2A and B contain the NBER business cycle peak and trough dates and the corresponding dates identified in real time by the switching model.
The authors work with Markov-switching models of real GDP and employment that, when estimated on the entire post-war sample, provide a chronology of business cycle peak and trough dates very close to that produced by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).
The duration of the recession is the length of time, in months, between the peak and trough.