parotid glands


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Related to parotid glands: parotitis, mumps, minor salivary glands

parotid

 [pah-rot´id]
near the ear.
parotid glands the largest of the three main pairs of salivary glands, located on either side of the face, just below and in front of the ears. From each gland a duct, the parotid duct (sometimes called Stensen's duct), runs forward across the cheek and opens on the inside surface of the cheek opposite the second molar of the upper jaw.

The parotid glands are made up of groups of cells clustered around a globular cavity, resembling a bunch of grapes. Small ducts draining each cavity join the ducts of neighboring cavities to form large ducts, which in turn join the parotid duct.

From the system of ducts flows the thin, watery secretion of the parotid glands called saliva, which plays an important role in the process of digestion. As food is chewed the saliva with which it is mixed and moistened makes it possible for the food to be reduced to a substance that can be swallowed.

Controlled by the autonomic nervous system, the secretion of the salivary glands begins whenever the sensory nerves of the mouth, or in some cases nerves located elsewhere in the body, are stimulated.

Salivation may be an involuntary reflex, as when food or even inedible material placed in the mouth starts the flow of the secretion from the glands, or it may be a conditioned reflex, as when the flow is started by the sight, smell, or thought of food.
Disorders of the Parotid Glands. The most common disease affecting the parotid glands is mumps, or epidemic parotitis.

Swelling and tenderness may also result from infections caused by other viruses or bacteria in the glands. Less often, these symptoms indicate a blockage of a duct by either infection or a calculus, in which case the swelling is likely to fluctuate, especially at mealtimes. Though stubborn or recurring cases sometimes require surgery, stones often can be removed by massage. For infections, antibiotics and warm compresses are the usual treatment.

Occasionally additional glandular masses grow in or near a parotid gland. The majority of such growths are mixed tumors, so called because they contain cartilage or other material as well as the usual glandular material. Usually they are benign; occasionally they may be malignant and require surgery.

parotid glands

The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. Each parotid is situated over the angle of the jaw, below and in front of the lower half of the ear and has a duct running forward through the cheek to open on the inside of the mouth at about the level of the upper molar teeth.

parotid

near the ear.

parotid adenitis
inflammation of the parotid gland characterized by regional swelling, pain and heat.
parotid duct
see parotid glands (below).
parotid duct transposition
a surgical procedure in which the parotid duct is redirected so that it discharges into the lower conjunctival cul-de-sac. Used in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
parotid glands
the largest of the main pairs of salivary glands, located on either side of the head, just behind the jaw and below the ears. From each gland a duct, the parotid duct, runs forward across the cheek (carnivores and small ruminants) or runs on the inside of the jaw to wind around the ventral border of the jaw to the cheek (pig, horse and ox) and opens on the inside surface of the cheek generally opposite the upper molars, the precise location depending on the species.
parotid region
the region below the ear.
References in periodicals archive ?
It has an important role in the preoperative evaluation and categorisation of various parotid gland lesions.
The parotid gland is an uncommon site of metastasis from carcinomas arising in the head and neck region in Chinese population since the incidence of cutaneous SCC is very low compared with that of Western countries.
The FNA for parotid gland lesions is a routine procedure.
These results highlight the difference between parotid glands and submandibular glands in the face of chemical noxious stimuli [13].
The primary LECs of the parotid glands are rare and require serial examinations for excluding metastatic lymphadenopathy, especially nasopharynx originated.
In 1998, Izumi et al reported that steroid irrigation of the parotid gland significantly increased salivary flow rate inpatients with Sjogren syndrome.
STZ induced hyperglycemia caused an accumulation of lipids in the parotid glands of rats, with an increase in the synthesis of total serum cholesterol.
In the diabetes induced parotid glands a reduction in the rate of acyl lipid was seen and reported that diabetes did not alter only the morphology of the parotid gland, at the same time causes the disruption in the secretory function and acyl lipid content of cells of parotid gland.
It extends from the atlantal fossa to the basihyoid bone so that it is partly covered by the parotid gland (ELLENPORT, 1986; DYCE et al.
The major functional abnormality of the parotid gland in Jorgen's syndrome appears to be luminal transport in the ductal region; leakage of serum components is minimal.
It was my own (thankfully benign) parotid gland tumor that convinced me to delve more deeply into the research on electropollution.