parotid glands


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Related to parotid glands: parotitis, mumps, minor salivary glands

parotid

 [pah-rot´id]
near the ear.
parotid glands the largest of the three main pairs of salivary glands, located on either side of the face, just below and in front of the ears. From each gland a duct, the parotid duct (sometimes called Stensen's duct), runs forward across the cheek and opens on the inside surface of the cheek opposite the second molar of the upper jaw.

The parotid glands are made up of groups of cells clustered around a globular cavity, resembling a bunch of grapes. Small ducts draining each cavity join the ducts of neighboring cavities to form large ducts, which in turn join the parotid duct.

From the system of ducts flows the thin, watery secretion of the parotid glands called saliva, which plays an important role in the process of digestion. As food is chewed the saliva with which it is mixed and moistened makes it possible for the food to be reduced to a substance that can be swallowed.

Controlled by the autonomic nervous system, the secretion of the salivary glands begins whenever the sensory nerves of the mouth, or in some cases nerves located elsewhere in the body, are stimulated.

Salivation may be an involuntary reflex, as when food or even inedible material placed in the mouth starts the flow of the secretion from the glands, or it may be a conditioned reflex, as when the flow is started by the sight, smell, or thought of food.
Disorders of the Parotid Glands. The most common disease affecting the parotid glands is mumps, or epidemic parotitis.

Swelling and tenderness may also result from infections caused by other viruses or bacteria in the glands. Less often, these symptoms indicate a blockage of a duct by either infection or a calculus, in which case the swelling is likely to fluctuate, especially at mealtimes. Though stubborn or recurring cases sometimes require surgery, stones often can be removed by massage. For infections, antibiotics and warm compresses are the usual treatment.

Occasionally additional glandular masses grow in or near a parotid gland. The majority of such growths are mixed tumors, so called because they contain cartilage or other material as well as the usual glandular material. Usually they are benign; occasionally they may be malignant and require surgery.

parotid glands

The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. Each parotid is situated over the angle of the jaw, below and in front of the lower half of the ear and has a duct running forward through the cheek to open on the inside of the mouth at about the level of the upper molar teeth.

parotid

near the ear.

parotid adenitis
inflammation of the parotid gland characterized by regional swelling, pain and heat.
parotid duct
see parotid glands (below).
parotid duct transposition
a surgical procedure in which the parotid duct is redirected so that it discharges into the lower conjunctival cul-de-sac. Used in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
parotid glands
the largest of the main pairs of salivary glands, located on either side of the head, just behind the jaw and below the ears. From each gland a duct, the parotid duct, runs forward across the cheek (carnivores and small ruminants) or runs on the inside of the jaw to wind around the ventral border of the jaw to the cheek (pig, horse and ox) and opens on the inside surface of the cheek generally opposite the upper molars, the precise location depending on the species.
parotid region
the region below the ear.
References in periodicals archive ?
In 1998, Izumi et al reported that steroid irrigation of the parotid gland significantly increased salivary flow rate inpatients with Sjogren syndrome.
In the Hebrew University study, 20% of the incidences of parotid gland tumors occurred in people under 20 years of age
When patients present with enlarged parotid glands associated with cervical lymphadenopathy, HIV is the diagnosis of exclusion.
Intraoral findings include thick ropy saliva and clear yellow fluid was expressed on milking the right parotid gland.
SHOCKING: the mumps virus could hit more than 10,000 Midlanders this year VULNERABLE: students are among those most at risk PAINFUL: mumps causes the parotid glands to swell
6) Furthermore, they all showed marked unilateral or bilateral submandibular gland swelling, as well as parotid gland swelling.
Sjogrens syndrome is an auto-immune disease affecting the lacrimal and all salivary glands, but predominantly the parotid glands.
The presence of bilateral painless parotid gland swelling with no history or evidence of infection excludes acute parotitis.
A 47-year-old man presented with a mass in the left parotid gland that had been rapidly enlarging for 6 weeks.
Sialorrhea in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A hypothesis of a new treatment--botulinum toxin A injections of the parotid glands.
KNOW The largest pair, the parotid glands, lie over the angle of the jaw on each side, just below and in front of the ears.