parasympathetic


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par·a·sym·pa·thet·ic

(par'ă-sim'pă-thet'ik),
Pertaining to a division of the autonomic nervous system. See: autonomic (visceral motor) division of nervous system.

parasympathetic

/para·sym·pa·thet·ic/ (-sim″pah-thet´ik) see under system.

parasympathetic

(păr′ə-sĭm′pə-thĕt′ĭk)
adj.
Of, relating to, or affecting the parasympathetic nervous system: parasympathetic activity; parasympathetic agents.
n.
1. The parasympathetic nervous system.
2. Any of the nerves of this system.

par′a·sym′pa·thet′i·cal·ly adv.

parasympathetic

[-sim′pəthet′ik]
Etymology: Gk, para + sympathein, to feel with
pertaining to the craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system, consisting of the oculomotor, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, and pelvic nerves. The actions of the parasympathetic division are mediated by the release of acetylcholine and primarily involve the protection, conservation, and restoration of body resources. Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers, which emerge from the hypothalamus, other brain areas, and sacral segments of the spinal cord, form synapses in ganglia located near or in the walls of the organs to be innervated. Reactions to parasympathetic stimulation are highly localized and tend to counteract the adrenergic effects of sympathetic nerves. Parasympathetic fibers slow the heart; stimulate peristalsis; promote the secretion of lacrimal, salivary, and digestive glands; induce bile and insulin release; dilate peripheral and visceral blood vessels; constrict the pupils, esophagus, and bronchioles; and relax sphincters during micturition and defecation. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers extend to the uterus, vagina, oviducts, and ovaries in females and to the prostate, seminal vesicles, and external genitalia in males, innervating blood vessels of pelvic organs in both sexes; stimulation of these nerves causes vasodilation in the clitoris and labia minora and erection of the penis.

parasympathetic

adjective Pertaining to the subdivision of the autonomic nervous system concerned with activities that, in general, inhibit or oppose the physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system

par·a·sym·pa·thet·ic

(par'ă-sim'pă-thet'ik)
Pertaining to a division of the autonomic nervous system.
See: autonomic division of nervous system

parasympathetic

relating to the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

par·a·sym·pa·thet·ic

(par'ă-sim'pă-thet'ik)
Pertaining to a division of the autonomic nervous system.

parasympathetic (par″əsim″pə-thet´ik),

adj pertaining to the part of the autonomic nervous system that controls craniosacral activity.

parasympathetic

pertaining to the parasympathetic nervous system.

parasympathetic cholinergic vasodilator fibers
cause dilatation of blood vessels in tissues including cerebral vessels, tongue, salivary glands, external genitalia, bladder, rectum.
parasympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic nervous system, the preganglionic fibers of which leave the central nervous system with cranial nerves III, VII, IX and X and several sacral nerves (depending on species); postganglionic fibers are distributed to the heart, smooth muscles, and glands of the head and neck, and thoracic, abdominal and pelvic viscera. Almost three-quarters of all parasympathetic nerve fibers are in the vagus nerves, which serve both the thoracic and abdominal regions of the body.
The predominant secretion of the nerve endings of the parasympathetic nervous system is acetylcholine, which acts on the various organs of the body to either excite or inhibit certain activities. For example, stimulation of the parasympathetic system causes constriction of the pupil of the eye and contraction of the ciliary muscle; increase of the glandular secretion of enzymes, as in the case of the pancreas; increased peristalsis; and a slowed heart rate. Excitation of the sympathetic nervous system often results in an effect opposite to that of the parasympathetic system; however, most organs are predominantly under the control of either one or the other of the two nervous systems that compose the autonomic nervous system.
parasympathetic outflow
the total of parasympathetic nerves which leave the central nervous system. Includes the cranial and sacral outflows.
References in periodicals archive ?
5 Hz) provide information related to parasympathetic activity.
All of the induction drivers seem to create a parasympathetic dominance and create a slowing down and rhythmic brain wave pattern even though the means by which this was instigated is different.
Evaluation of novel dry eye model: Preganglionic parasympathetic denervation in rabbit.
Neostigmine must be cautiously administered in order to reverse neuromuscular blockage; especially in children whose parasympathetic system is not fully developed.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released from parasympathetic postganglionic fibres, as well as ACh.
Indicator RRNN reflects the end result of numerous regulatory influences on the sinus rhythm of the existing balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
However, this does not imply that there is no specific physiological effect of acupuncture treatment as we found an acupuncture-specific increased parasympathetic tone accompanied by an increase of pain-related QoL.
At the onset of exercise, cardiac output rises with progressively graded work rates because of a prompt decrease in parasympathetic activity followed by an increase in sympathetic outflow.
Pelvic somatic pain is thought to be conveyed through nerve complexes and parasympathetic ganglia in the uterosacral ligaments.
The preganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the 3rd nerve which are transported by the nerve to the inferior oblique muscle arrive to the ciliary ganglion and from here the post-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers emerge.
Nicotine is a naturally occurring alkaloid that is capable of stimulating acetylcholine receptors in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, as well as cholinergic nicotinic receptors at skeletal muscle sites and in the brain.
There is clinical evidence about the specificity and sensitivity of the HRV parameters to asses the reduction in parasympathetic activity related to several anxiety forms (Friedman, 2007).