parasympathetic


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par·a·sym·pa·thet·ic

(par'ă-sim'pă-thet'ik),
Pertaining to a division of the autonomic nervous system. See: autonomic (visceral motor) division of nervous system.

parasympathetic

/para·sym·pa·thet·ic/ (-sim″pah-thet´ik) see under system.

parasympathetic

(păr′ə-sĭm′pə-thĕt′ĭk)
adj.
Of, relating to, or affecting the parasympathetic nervous system: parasympathetic activity; parasympathetic agents.
n.
1. The parasympathetic nervous system.
2. Any of the nerves of this system.

par′a·sym′pa·thet′i·cal·ly adv.

parasympathetic

[-sim′pəthet′ik]
Etymology: Gk, para + sympathein, to feel with
pertaining to the craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system, consisting of the oculomotor, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, and pelvic nerves. The actions of the parasympathetic division are mediated by the release of acetylcholine and primarily involve the protection, conservation, and restoration of body resources. Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers, which emerge from the hypothalamus, other brain areas, and sacral segments of the spinal cord, form synapses in ganglia located near or in the walls of the organs to be innervated. Reactions to parasympathetic stimulation are highly localized and tend to counteract the adrenergic effects of sympathetic nerves. Parasympathetic fibers slow the heart; stimulate peristalsis; promote the secretion of lacrimal, salivary, and digestive glands; induce bile and insulin release; dilate peripheral and visceral blood vessels; constrict the pupils, esophagus, and bronchioles; and relax sphincters during micturition and defecation. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers extend to the uterus, vagina, oviducts, and ovaries in females and to the prostate, seminal vesicles, and external genitalia in males, innervating blood vessels of pelvic organs in both sexes; stimulation of these nerves causes vasodilation in the clitoris and labia minora and erection of the penis.

parasympathetic

adjective Pertaining to the subdivision of the autonomic nervous system concerned with activities that, in general, inhibit or oppose the physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system

par·a·sym·pa·thet·ic

(par'ă-sim'pă-thet'ik)
Pertaining to a division of the autonomic nervous system.
See: autonomic division of nervous system

parasympathetic

relating to the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

par·a·sym·pa·thet·ic

(par'ă-sim'pă-thet'ik)
Pertaining to a division of the autonomic nervous system.

parasympathetic (par″əsim″pə-thet´ik),

adj pertaining to the part of the autonomic nervous system that controls craniosacral activity.

parasympathetic

pertaining to the parasympathetic nervous system.

parasympathetic cholinergic vasodilator fibers
cause dilatation of blood vessels in tissues including cerebral vessels, tongue, salivary glands, external genitalia, bladder, rectum.
parasympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic nervous system, the preganglionic fibers of which leave the central nervous system with cranial nerves III, VII, IX and X and several sacral nerves (depending on species); postganglionic fibers are distributed to the heart, smooth muscles, and glands of the head and neck, and thoracic, abdominal and pelvic viscera. Almost three-quarters of all parasympathetic nerve fibers are in the vagus nerves, which serve both the thoracic and abdominal regions of the body.
The predominant secretion of the nerve endings of the parasympathetic nervous system is acetylcholine, which acts on the various organs of the body to either excite or inhibit certain activities. For example, stimulation of the parasympathetic system causes constriction of the pupil of the eye and contraction of the ciliary muscle; increase of the glandular secretion of enzymes, as in the case of the pancreas; increased peristalsis; and a slowed heart rate. Excitation of the sympathetic nervous system often results in an effect opposite to that of the parasympathetic system; however, most organs are predominantly under the control of either one or the other of the two nervous systems that compose the autonomic nervous system.
parasympathetic outflow
the total of parasympathetic nerves which leave the central nervous system. Includes the cranial and sacral outflows.
References in periodicals archive ?
This occurs because part of the afferent parasympathetic visual pathway from the affected eye has been completely disrupted.
By using these techniques, the body's parasympathetic nervous system is stimulated and people may respond better to stressful situations.
4Hz) and then compute the LF/HF ratio of power to determine the dominance of sympathetic (high value) or parasympathetic (low value) part of the ANS.
In contrast, authors of a recent field study reported a decrease in respiratory sinus arrhythmia associated with indoor traffic noise exposure during sleep, consistent with an effect mediated by a reduction in parasympathetic tone (Graham et al.
The concern is precipitating malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias secondary to increased parasympathetic relative to sympathetic tone (1,2).
This extreme sense of relaxation allows a parasympathetic dominant state and elevates the cortical synchronization thus creating a rhythmic pattern.
The tear gland is innervated both by parasympathetic and sympathetic circuitry, with a clear parasympathetic anatomical and functional predominance (Dartt 2009; Dartt et al.
The cause of the intoxication is the grayanotoxin which has toxic effects on sodium channels (2) and induces increased parasympathetic tone that causes life-threatening bradycardia, hypotension, and altered mental status (3).
While the sympathetic system is an energy hog, the parasympathetic conserves energy, and the two should remain in balance in healthy individuals.
Scorpion venom stimulates both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.
Parasympathetic neuropathy and vagal blockade can lead to autoimmune disease.
Paraganglioma is the term used to describe tumours originating from neural crest-derived cells that disperse widely to form parasympathetic and sympathetic ganglia of the autonomic nervous system (1).