Caption: FIGURE 2 Abnormal parasternal
long-axis view of the heart in early diastole
In animals, the left atrium is usually compared to the aorta in the right parasternal
short axis image at the heart base.
A cranial parasternal
approach may be used from both sides of the body, mainly for echocardiographic examination.
In all patients stroke volume was calculated by measuring the outflow tract diameter in the parasternal
long axis view at the base of the aortic valve leaflet by a consultant cardiologist.
There was no parasternal
heave and the apex was not displaced.
A C5-1 curvilinear array ultrasound probe (Phillips, Netherlands) was used for the transcutaneous biopsy with a parasternal
Line Location A Lateral aspects of upper anterior portion of the arms extending over the pectoral area B Posteromedial portion of the lower limbs, extending from the perineum to the ankles C Hypopigmented lines in pre- and parasternal
areas D Posteromedial area of the spine E Bilateral hypopigmented bands on the chest in the zone between the mid-third of the clavicle and the periareolar skin F V-shaped patch on the lateral cheeks G W-shaped patch on the lateral cheeks H Linear bands extending from the oral commissures to the lateral aspects of the chin
Pain was localized to the right lower parasternal
area, occasionally radiating to the back.
long- and short-axis views and apical views were used as standard imaging windows.
LA diameters were determined from the apical four-chamber and parasternal
long axis sections (Transverse [D1], longitudinal [D2], parasternal
long axis [D3], the formula: D1 x D2 x D3 x 0.
M-mode, B-mode and Doppler echocardiographic examinations were performed through right parasternal
short axis view and apical left parasternal
view by using a portable ultrasound machine of GE Logiq P5 color Doppler equipped with a 5 S transducer.
Caption: Figure 1: Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrates a large pericardial effusion ((a) apical 4-chamber view and (b) parasternal
short axis view) and chest CT shows a large pericardial effusion, bilateral pleural effusions, and atelectasis of the left lower lobe (c).