Scinigraphy showed 2 patients to have parasternal
sentinel nodes and 38 patients to have a sentinel node in the ipsilateral axilla.
EAT was evaluated on the free wall of right ventricle from the parasternal
long-axis view, using aortic annulus as an anatomic reference (Fig.
LV linear dimensions are determined from the parasternal
long-axis view, as described in the guidelines (10).
He had a left parasternal
systolic murmur, produced by a ventricular septal defect, revealed by Doppler echocardiography (Fig.
Cardiovascular examination revealed mild cyanosis, 2+/4+ symmetrical clubbing of fingers and toes, jugular venous distention with large CV waves with an estimated mean right atrial pressure of 15 mm Hg, and a prominent left parasternal
Severely increased interventricular septum is seen at TTE parasternal
long axis view
She had a right parasternal
lift and bilateral pulmonary wheezes.
Echocardiograms were obtained in standard parasternal
long-axis and short-axis views as well as apical two-, four-, and five-chamber views.
The hernia usually occurs on the right side but may occur on the left or in the midline; it has also been described as retrosternal, parasternal
, substernal, and subcostosternal (1).
Left ventricular mass was calculated from M-Mode records taken on parasternal
long-axis images according to Devereux's formula (24).
long axis and apical four chamber images were recorded according to the recommendations of the American Society for Echocardiography.
The investigators usually choose to measure epicardial fat on the free wall of the RV since it is accessible from both parasternal
long and short axis views and includes the highest absolute epicardial fat layer thickness.