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Related to parasites: Protozoa, Parasitic diseases




Enlarged spleen Enlargement of spleen for any reason, which is usually a manifestation of underlying disease; the only specific finding in splenomegaly is dragging sensation in the upper right quadrant; megalic spleens may reach 4.0+ kg–eg, in agnogenic myeloid metaplasia
Congestion Cirrhosis, CHF, thrombosis of portal or splenic veins
• Bacteria Brucellosis, infective carditis agents, syphilis, TB, typhoid fever
• Fungi Histoplasmosis
• Parasites Echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis
• Viruses CMV, EBV
Inflammatory/immune-related Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
Hematopoietic disease/Lymphoid function
• Malignant Leukemias, eg ALL, CLL, myeloproliferative disorders–eg agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, CML, multiple myeloma, polycythemia vera; lymphomas–Hodgkin's disease, NHL
• Nonmalignant Hemolytic anemia, histiocytosis, ITP
Storage diseases Gaucher's disease, mucopolysaccharidosis, Niemann-Pick disease
Etc Amyloidosis, cysts, hypersplenism, metastases, primary tumors

transfusion reaction

Blood transfusion reaction, incompatibility reaction Transfusion medicine Any untoward response to the transfusion of non-self blood products, in particular RBCs, which evokes febrile reactions that are either minor–occurring in 1:40 transfusions and attributed to nonspecific leukocyte-derived pyrogens, or major–occurring in 1:3000 transfusions and caused by a true immune reaction, which is graded according to the presence of urticaria, itching, chills, fever and, if the reaction is intense, collapse, cyanosis, chest and/or back pain and diffuse hemorrhage Note: If any of above signs appear in a transfusion reaction, or if the temperature rises 1ºC, the transfusion must be stopped; most Pts survive if < 200 ml has been transfused in cases of red cell incompatibility-induced transfusion reaction; over 50% die when 500 ml or more has been transfused; TF mortality is ± 1.13/105 transfusions Clinical Flank pain, fever, chills, bloody urine, rash, hypotension, vertigo, fainting
Transfusion reactions
Immune, non-infectious transfusion reactions  
• Allergic Urticaria with immediate hypersensitivity
• Anaphylaxis Spontaneous anti-IgA antibody formation, occurs in ± 1:30 of Pts with immunoglobulin A deficiency, which affects 1:600 of the general population–total frequency: 1/30 X 1/600 = 1/18,000
• Antibodies to red cell antigens, eg antibodies to ABH, Ii, MNSs, P1, HLA
• Serum sickness Antibodies to donor's immunoglobulins and proteins
Non-immune, non-infectious transfusion reactions  
• Air embolism A problem of historic interest that occurred when air vents were included in transfusion sets
• Anticoagulant Citrate anticoagulant may cause tremors and EKG changes
• Coagulation defects Depletion of factors VIII and V; this 'dilutional' effect requires massive transfusion of 10 + units before becoming significant
• Cold blood In ultra-emergent situations, blood stored at 4º C may be tranfused prior to reaching body temperature at 37º C; warming a unit of blood from 4 to 37º C requires 30 kcal/L of energy, consumed as glucose; cold blood slows metabolism, exacerbates lactic acidosis, ↓ available calcium, ↑ hemoglobin's affinity for O2 and causes K+ leakage, a major concern in cold hemoglobinuria
• Hemolysis A phenomenon due to blood collection trauma, a clinically insignificant problem
• Hyperammonemia and lactic acid Both molecules accumulate during packed red cell storage and when transfused, require hepatorenal clearance, of concern in Pts with hepatic or renal dysfunction, who should receive the freshest units possible
• Hyperkalemia Hemolysis causes an ↑ of 1 mmol/L/day of potassium in a unit of stored blood, of concern in Pts with poor renal function, potentially causing arrhythmia
• Iron overload Each unit of packed RBCs has 250 mg iron, potentially causing hemosiderosis in multi-transfused Pts
Microaggregates Sludged debris in the pulmonary vasculature causing ARDS may be removed with micropore filters
Pseudoreaction Transfusion reaction mimics, eg anxiety, anaphylaxis related to a drug being administered at the same time as the transfusion
Infections transmitted by blood transfusion
• Viruses B19, CMV, EBV, HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Colorado tick fever, tropical viruses–eg Rift Valley fever, Ebola, Lassa, dengue, HHV 6, HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-I, HTLV-II
• Bacteria Transmission of bacterial infections from an infected donor is uncommon and includes brucellosis and syphilis in older reports; more recent reports include Lyme disease and Yersinia enterocolitica  Note: Although virtually any bacteria could in theory be transmitted in blood, the usual cause is contamination during processing rather than transmission from an infected donor
• Parasites Babesiosis, Leishmania donovani, L tropica, malaria, microfilariasis–Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, Mansonella ozzardi, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi
References in periodicals archive ?
The FSA said: "Heating or freezing should kill any parasite, but if anyone sees any sign of the parasite they should not eat the fish.
A group of scientists in the Czech Republic recently discovered yet another possible consequence of these parasites.
Nonetheless, recent work in Chile has demonstrated the presence of Diphyllobothrium plerocercoids in rainbow trout raised in aquaculture, which suggests that aquacultured fish can become infected with these parasites (18).
Whirling disease, so named because some affected fish swim in circles, is caused by a parasite that attacks the skeletal and nervous systems of young trout and salmon.
Further investigations into the outbreak revealed that wild trout living in Spring Brook, the hatchery's water supply, contained the parasite and were thought to be the original cause of the hatchery infection.
In a separate proposal to amend Council Regulation 1774/ 2002, measures to protect EU apiculture from the two parasites, together with additional health requirements, will also be laid down in a new health certificate to accompany products for use in apiculture.
Conversely, he says, conventional malaria drugs attack billions to trillions of parasites that are multiplying in the human bloodstream, which he calls a "classic situation for selecting for resistant microorganisms.
We started chatting and this Gates Foundation Professor of Biological Sciences at Smith College spoke with real passion about parasite genomics for human health.
Hillgarth and Wingfield suggest that because many birds molt into breeding plumage long before their parasite loads are assessed by researchers, associations between plumage and parasites are apt to be weak.
Where mixed-genotype infections occur, parasites could evolve a genetically fixed strategy appropriate for the frequency of mixed infections in the population.
The author is convinced that some health problems, such as chronic fatigue, hypoglycemia, food allergies, spastic colon, and respiratory disorders, could be alleviated by eradicating parasites from the body.