parainfluenza virus


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parainfluenza virus

 [par″ah-in″floo-en´zah]
one of a group of viruses isolated from patients with upper respiratory tract disease of varying severity.

parainfluenza virus

[per′ə·in′flo̅o̅·en′zə]
Etymology: Gk, para + It, influenza, influence
a myxovirus with four serotypes, causing respiratory infections in infants, young children, and, less commonly, adults. Type 1 and 2 parainfluenza viruses may cause laryngotracheobronchitis or croup; type 3 is a cause of croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and bronchopneumonia in children; and types 1, 3, and 4 are associated with pharyngitis and the common cold. Compare influenza, rhinovirus.

parainfluenza virus

Any of 4 Paramyxoviridiae serotypes of Paramyxovirus, which cause respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. Parainfluenzavirus (PV) is the most common identified agent in croup—causing up to 50% of croup and 10 to 15% of bronchiolitis, bronchitis, and pneumonias in toddlers—and a close second to RSV in RTIs requiring hospitalisation in infants.
 
Clinical findings
Asymptomatic to life-threatening croup or bronchiolitis, but most commonly rhinorrhoea, cold-like symptoms.
 
Risk factors
Preschool children; by school age, most children have been exposed to PV; most adults have antibodies against PV.

virus

any member of a unique class of infectious agents, which were originally distinguished by their smallness (hence, they were described as 'filtrable' because of their ability to pass through bacteria-retaining filters) and their inability to replicate outside of a living host cell; because these properties are shared by certain bacteria (rickettsiae, chlamydiae), viruses are further characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope.
For a list of animal viruses and their classification see Table 8.1.
Unlike cellular organisms, viruses do not contain all the biochemical mechanisms for their own replication; viruses replicate by using the biochemical mechanisms of a host cell to synthesize and assemble their separate components. When a complete virus particle (virion) comes in contact with a host cell, the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are introduced into the host cell.
Viruses vary in their stability; some such as poxviruses, parvoviruses and rotaviruses are very stable and survive well outside the body while others, particularly those viruses that are enveloped, such as herpesvirus, influenza virus, do not survive well and therefore usually require close contact for transmission and are readily destroyed by disinfectants, particularly those with a detergent action. Some viruses produce acute disease while others, sometimes referred to as slow viruses, such as retroviruses and lentiviruses and the scrapie agent, produce diseases which progress often to death over many years. Viruses in several families are transmitted by arthropod vectors.

virus amplification
arbor virus
an incorrect, obsolete term for arbovirus.
attenuated virus
one whose pathogenicity has been reduced by serial animal passage or other means. See also attenuation (2).
avianized virus
bacterial virus
one that is capable of producing transmissible lysis of bacteria. See also bacteriophage.
C-type virus
Coxsackie virus
coxsackievirus.
defective virus
one that cannot be completely replicated or cannot form a protein coat or envelope; in some cases replication can proceed if missing gene functions are supplied by other viruses, termed helper virus (see below).
ECHO virus
enteric virus
enteric orphan v's
orphan viruses isolated from the intestinal tract but not known to cause disease, hence orphan.
feline sarcoma virus
see feline sarcoma virus.
filterable virus, filtrable virus
a pathogenic agent capable of passing through fine filters able to exclude bacteria; outdated terminology.
fixed virus, virus fixé
rabies virus whose virulence and incubation period have been stabilized by serial passage and have remained fixed during further transmission; used for inoculating animals from which rabies vaccine is prepared.
foaming virus
feline syncytia-forming virus (FeSFV). So called because it causes foamy degeneration in feline cell cultures.
helper virus
one that aids in the development of a defective virus by supplying or restoring the activity of the viral gene such as that forming the protein coat.
herpes virus
herpesvirus.
human hepatitis virus
infection of chimpanzees with some of the human hepatitis viruses can result in infection of human workers.
influenza virus
any of a group of orthomyxoviruses that causes influenza. See influenza.
latent virus
a noninfective state and is demonstrable by indirect methods that activate it.
lytic virus
one that is replicated in the host cell and causes death and lysis of the cell.
masked virus
latent virus.
virus N
a type A influenza virus found in birds.
virus neutralization
see neutralization tests.
occult virus
see occult virus.
orphan virus
see orphan virus.
parainfluenza virus
pox virus
see pox.
rabies virus
an RNA virus of the rhabdovirus group that causes rabies.
respiratory syncytial virus
slow virus
the name given to certain viruses that cause diseases characterized by a long incubation period and a very prolonged clinical course, e.g. the lentiviruses of sheep, maedi and visna.
street virus
rabies virus from a naturally infected animal, as opposed to a laboratory-adapted, fixed virus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Stability of the parainfluenza virus 5 genome revealed by deep sequencing of strains isolated from different hosts and following passage in cell culture.
Clinical and molecular epidemiology of human parainfluenza virus 4 infections in Hong Kong : Subtype 4B as common as subtype 4A.
While parainfluenza virus type 3 is frequently the agent in winter months, type 1 and type 2 lead to infection mostly in fall and early winter months (16, 21).
The authors were able to show that EPs[R] 7630 at concentrations up to 100 [micro]g/ml interfered with replication of seasonal influenza A virus strains (H1N1 and H3N2), respiratory syncytial virus, human coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and coxsackievirus but did not affect replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1), adenovirus, or rhinovirus.
The nasopharyngeal swabs of two affected persons tested positive for parainfluenza virus (PIV) type 3 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) respectively upon laboratory testing.
Specimens were tested by real-time PCR and rRT-PCR for the following agents (13): influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza virus (types 1, 2, 3, and 4), enterovirus, rhinovirus, and Mycoplasma spp.
The most frequently detected noninfluenza viruses were human picornaviruses (673), respiratory syncytial virus A/B (312), human parainfluenza virus types 1 to 4 (193), adenoviruses B through D (157), bocaviruses (126), and coronaviruses OC43/229E (61); 467 children had two or more viruses detected, including 115 children with influenza.
The presence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (A+B), influenza virus (A+B), parainfluenza virus (PIV) (1, 2, 3, 4), human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus and coronavirus (OC43+229E) in throat swab samples were investigated by real-time PCR The RealAccurateTM Respiratory RT PCR Kit (PathoFinder B.
Nipah and Hendra are members of the genus Henipavirus, a new class of virus in the Paramyxoviridae family, which includes the measles and the human parainfluenza virus (HPIV, the cause of pediatric respiratory disease).
Determination of virus-induced cytopathogenic effects and virus titres revealed that EPs [R] 7630 at concentrations up to 100 [micro]g/ml interfered with replication of seasonal influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2), respiratory syncytial virus, human coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and coxsackie virus but did not affect replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1), adenovirus, or rhinovirus.
Viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, measles, and influenza also are a major cause of pneumonia.
In the new study, scientists used parainfluenza virus, one of the viruses that causes common colds, and found that delivery of a corrected version of the CFTR gene to 25 percent of cells grown in a tissue culture model that resembles the lining of the human airways was sufficient to restore normal function back to the tissue.