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Related to parainfluenza virus: adenovirus, enterovirus, croup, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, vaccine virus
one of a group of viruses isolated from patients with upper respiratory tract disease of varying severity.
Etymology: Gk, para + It, influenza, influence
a myxovirus with four serotypes, causing respiratory infections in infants, young children, and, less commonly, adults. Type 1 and 2 parainfluenza viruses may cause laryngotracheobronchitis or croup; type 3 is a cause of croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and bronchopneumonia in children; and types 1, 3, and 4 are associated with pharyngitis and the common cold. Compare influenza, rhinovirus.
parainfluenza virusAny of 4 Paramyxoviridiae serotypes of Paramyxovirus, which cause respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. Parainfluenzavirus (PV) is the most common identified agent in croup—causing up to 50% of croup and 10 to 15% of bronchiolitis, bronchitis, and pneumonias in toddlers—and a close second to RSV in RTIs requiring hospitalisation in infants.
Asymptomatic to life-threatening croup or bronchiolitis, but most commonly rhinorrhoea, cold-like symptoms.
Preschool children; by school age, most children have been exposed to PV; most adults have antibodies against PV.
any member of a unique class of infectious agents, which were originally distinguished by their smallness (hence, they were described as 'filtrable' because of their ability to pass through bacteria-retaining filters) and their inability to replicate outside of a living host cell; because these properties are shared by certain bacteria (rickettsiae, chlamydiae), viruses are further characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope.
For a list of animal viruses and their classification see Table 8.1.
Unlike cellular organisms, viruses do not contain all the biochemical mechanisms for their own replication; viruses replicate by using the biochemical mechanisms of a host cell to synthesize and assemble their separate components. When a complete virus particle (virion) comes in contact with a host cell, the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are introduced into the host cell.
Viruses vary in their stability; some such as poxviruses, parvoviruses and rotaviruses are very stable and survive well outside the body while others, particularly those viruses that are enveloped, such as herpesvirus, influenza virus, do not survive well and therefore usually require close contact for transmission and are readily destroyed by disinfectants, particularly those with a detergent action. Some viruses produce acute disease while others, sometimes referred to as slow viruses, such as retroviruses and lentiviruses and the scrapie agent, produce diseases which progress often to death over many years. Viruses in several families are transmitted by arthropod vectors.
an incorrect, obsolete term for arbovirus.
one whose pathogenicity has been reduced by serial animal passage or other means. See also attenuation (2).
one that is capable of producing transmissible lysis of bacteria. See also bacteriophage.
see c-type virus.
one that cannot be completely replicated or cannot form a protein coat or envelope; in some cases replication can proceed if missing gene functions are supplied by other viruses, termed helper virus (see below).
enteric orphan v's
orphan viruses isolated from the intestinal tract but not known to cause disease, hence orphan.
feline sarcoma virus
see feline sarcoma virus.
filterable virus, filtrable virus
a pathogenic agent capable of passing through fine filters able to exclude bacteria; outdated terminology.
fixed virus, virus fixé
rabies virus whose virulence and incubation period have been stabilized by serial passage and have remained fixed during further transmission; used for inoculating animals from which rabies vaccine is prepared.
feline syncytia-forming virus (FeSFV). So called because it causes foamy degeneration in feline cell cultures.
one that aids in the development of a defective virus by supplying or restoring the activity of the viral gene such as that forming the protein coat.
human hepatitis virus
infection of chimpanzees with some of the human hepatitis viruses can result in infection of human workers.
any of a group of orthomyxoviruses that causes influenza. See influenza.
a noninfective state and is demonstrable by indirect methods that activate it.
one that is replicated in the host cell and causes death and lysis of the cell.
a type A influenza virus found in birds.
see neutralization tests.
see occult virus.
see orphan virus.
an RNA virus of the rhabdovirus group that causes rabies.
respiratory syncytial virus
the name given to certain viruses that cause diseases characterized by a long incubation period and a very prolonged clinical course, e.g. the lentiviruses of sheep, maedi and visna.
rabies virus from a naturally infected animal, as opposed to a laboratory-adapted, fixed virus.