TMD has a multifactorial etiology, including genetic and behavioral factors, direct and indirect trauma, psychological factors, and postural and parafunctional
wear patterns and chipping observed in B34's dentition suggest bruxism (tooth-clenching or grinding), common in CP, which may occur as a result of malocclusion, masticatory muscular impairments, digestive issues, or anxiety (Ortega et al.
activities can be diurnal or nocturnal (occurring during sleep).
Those with a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, severe parafunctional
habits like (clenching and bruxism), systemic disease, psychological conditions, known drug addictory and complete denture wearers were excluded from the study.
Patients were excluded if they had also received ceramic or composite veneers, severe parafunctional
habits or poor oral hygiene.
Clinically, ceramic fractures often begins as porcelain fractures that may be caused by inappropriate coping design, poor abutment preparation, technical errors, physical trauma, parafunctional
habits, flexural failure of metal substructure, failures in adhesive bonding, incompatibility of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the porcelain and the metal structure, contamination, porosities in the porcelain.
Many situations such as deliberate unilateral chewing, limited and sporadic locking of mouth opening, articulation noises, and muscle pain can begin in an inadequate occlusion, unbalanced, a parafunctional
overload, or an interfering dental element (Pereira, Steenks, & Van Der Bilt, 2009; Lima, Cavalcanti, & Marchi, 2010).
When patients present with parafunctional
habits the use of zirconia restorations must be carefully evaluated.
Localized severe periodontitis due to factors including edentulous space, occasional (one to two times a year) cigar smoking, parafunctional
habit of bruxism and using miscellaneous items to remove debris from teeth, and increased stress.
Local factors associated with burning mouth syndrome include hyposalivation and/ or xerostomia, parafunctional
habits, contact allergies, poorly fitting oral devices, Candida albicans oral infection, smoking, alcohol, caffeine, and hot or spicy foods.
Three-dimensional stress distribution in the human periodontal ligament in masticatory, parafunctional
, and trauma loads: finite element analysis.
One of the leading hypotheses is that EC develops secondary to parafunctional
activities, including lip licking and lip biting.