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breathing in which all or part of the chest wall moves in during inhalation and out during exhalation; there is also dyssynchrony between rib cage and abdomen, causing a “seesaw” type motion. The condition seriously inhibits the movement of gases during respiration and can produce severe and even fatal cardiovascular disturbances and respiratory insufficiency if not quickly relieved by emergency treatment. It usually results from traumatic injury to the thorax (flail chest), in which several ribs are fractured in two or more places and are no longer attached by bony cartilage to the rest of the rib cage. It can also be seen following surgical removal of several ribs, in paralysis of the diaphragm, and secondary to respiratory muscle fatigue in patients with acute ventilatory failure.
deflation of the lung during inspiration and inflation of the lung during the phase of expiration; seen in the lung on the side of an open pneumothorax.
1. Respiration occurring in patients with chest trauma and multiple rib fractures in which a portion of the chest wall sinks inward with each spontaneous inspiratory effort.
2. A condition seen in paralysis of the diaphragm in which the diaphragm ascends during inspiration.
See also: respiration
different from what is expected; at variance with the established laws.
see paradoxical respiration (below).
a type of breathing in which all or part of a lung inflates during inspiration and balloons out during expiration; the opposite of normal chest motion. Called also paradoxical motion. The condition seriously inhibits the movement of gases during respiration and can produce severe and even fatal cardiovascular disturbances and respiratory insufficiency if not quickly relieved by emergency treatment.
Paradoxical respiration or paradoxical motion of the lung usually results from traumatic injury to the thorax (flail chest) in which several ribs are fractured in two or more places and are no longer attached by bony cartilage to the rest of the rib cage. The condition can also be seen following surgical removal of several ribs and in paralysis of the diaphragm.
paradoxical septal motion
in echocardiography, the interventricular septum moves away from the left ventricular free wall during systole. Normally, it would move towards the wall. It is seen in right ventricular hypertrophy.
1. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells, including inspiration and expiration, diffusion of oxygen from the pulmonary alveoli to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the alveoli, and the transport of oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body cells.
2. cellular respiration, the metabolic processes by which living cells break down carbohydrates, amino acids and fats to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
inspiration and expiration accomplished mainly by the abdominal muscles and diaphragm. Occurs in acute pleurisy because of pain in the chest and fixation of the thorax, and tick paralysis due to paralysis of the intercostal muscles.
oxidative transformation of certain substrates into secretory products, the released energy being used in the process of assimilation.
respiration in which energy is released by chemical reactions in which free oxygen takes no part.
that maintained by force applied to the body. Called also artificially assisted respiration.
artificially assisted respiration
see artificial respiration (above).
rapid, deep respirations with abrupt pauses in breathing. See also biot's respirations.
the processes in the living cell by which organic substances are oxidized and chemical energy is released.
breathing characterized by rhythmic waxing and waning of respiration depth, with regularly recurring apneic periods. See also cheyne-stokes respiration.
breathing with jerky inspiration.
during general anesthesia using an endotracheal tube with an inflated cuff, the animal's respiration can be controlled completely by compression alternating with relaxation on the rebreathing bag of the breathing circuit. See also intermittent positive-pressure ventilation.
the respiratory movements are mostly carried out by the chest wall.
that performed mainly by the diaphragm.
induction of respiration by electric stimulation of the phrenic nerve.
the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood.
the exchange of gases between the body cells and the blood.
machines that monitor respiratory movement and efficiency are most desirable during anesthesia. They include rate monitors, apnea alarms, tidal and minute volume monitoring respirometers, infrared gas analyzers to measure carbon dioxide content of end-tidal air,
that in which a lung, or a portion of a lung, is deflated during inspiration and inflated during expiration. See also paradoxical respiration.