pancreatic islets


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Related to pancreatic islets: pancreas, islets of Langerhans, insulin

is·lets of Lan·ger·hans

(lahng'ĕr-hahnz),
cellular masses consisting of several to several hundred cells lying in the interstitial tissue of the pancreas; they are composed of five different cell types that make up the endocrine portion of the pancreas and are the sources of insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and gastrin.

pancreatic islets

Islets of Langerhans Anatomy Clusters of cells in the pancreas that form the endocrine portion and secrete insulin and glucagon

Langerhans,

Paul, German anatomist, 1847-1888.
islets of Langerhans - cellular masses composed of different cell types that comprise the endocrine portion of the pancreas and are the source of insulin and glucagon. Synonym(s): islet tissue; Langerhans islands; pancreatic islands; pancreatic islets
Langerhans cell granulomatosis
Langerhans cells - dendritic clear cells in the epidermis that are active participants in cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity.
Langerhans granule - a small membrane-bound granule first reported in Langerhans cells of the epidermis. Synonym(s): Birbeck granule
Langerhans islands - Synonym(s): islets of Langerhans

pancreatic

pertaining to the pancreas. See also pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus, cystic pancreatic duct.

pancreatic abscess
occurs as a complication of acute pancreatitis or subsequent to pancreatic surgery due to bacterial contamination but is most common as an extension from a leaking gastric ulcer.
pancreatic acinar atrophy
the islets of Langerhans remain normal but acinar tissue atrophies and exocrine function is compromised. Seen most commonly in large breeds of dogs, particularly German shepherd dogs. Clinical signs are related to the exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (see below).
acute pancreatic necrosis
see acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis.
pancreatic
alpha cells cells in the islet of Langerhans which secrete glucagon.
pancreatic anomaly
includes acinar hypoplasia and congenital Islet of langerhans aplasia.
pancreatic
beta cells comprise the majority of pancreatic islet cell population; secrete insulin.
pancreatic bladder
a diverticulum in the pancreatic duct like a gallbladder in the bile duct. Seen in some cats.
pancreatic C-cells
cells in the islet of Langerhans with no known function.
pancreatic calculus
small concretions, 4 to 5 mm diameter, in the pancreatic ducts, caused by chronic inflammation. Seen, usually in large numbers, in cattle.
pancreatic cysts
anomalous obstructions of ducts, often associated with similar cysts in kidneys and bile ducts.
pancreatic delta cells
cells in the islet of Langerhans; known to secrete somatostatin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide.
pancreatic duct
one of the two excretory ducts of the pancreas. Depending on the species, it may unite with the common bile duct before entering the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla. Absent from the pig and ox which only have an accessory pancreatic duct (developed from the dorsal primordium) which opens on the minor duodenal papilla. See also bile duct.
pancreatic duct obstruction
congenitally by agenesis of the duct, by pancreatic lithiasis or inflammation; causes initial distention followed by atrophy of acinar tissue.
pancreatic ectopic tissue
small masses of pancreatic exocrine or endocrine tissue found occasionally in the wall of the stomach or intestines and in the gallbladder; presumed to be functional.
pancreatic enzymes
the exocrine secretion into the intestine includes amylase, endo- and exopeptidases, and lipase. The endopeptidases include trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase, the exopeptidases are the carboxypeptidases A and B.
exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
insufficient secretion of digestive enzymes, usually due to loss of acinar tissue from idiopathic atrophy or acute or chronic inflammation, causes maldigestion and malabsorption with diarrhea, steatorrhea and weight loss.
pancreatic fibrosis
a sequel to pancreatitis, pancreatic duct obstruction, zinc poisoning.
pancreatic fluke
pancreatic gastrinoma
a gastrin-producing tumor arising from the delta cells of the pancreatic islets that causes hypergastrinemia, hypersecretion of gastric acid and ulceration of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Occurs rarely in dogs. See also zollinger-ellison syndrome.
pancreatic hypertrophy
physiological response to diets high in protein and energy.
pancreatic islets
islets of cells scattered through the pancreas; contain alpha, beta, C and D cells.
pancreatic islet cell tumor
pancreatic lipase
enzyme released from the exocrine pancreas; catalyzes the hydrolysis of dietary lipids in the presence of bile salts. See also lipase.
pancreatic lithiasis
see pancreatic calculus (above).
pancreatic nodular hyperplasia
hard, pale elevations on the surface of the gland; involve only the exocrine tissue; common in old cats and dogs; cause unknown; no discernible effect on patient.
pancreatic polypeptide
secreted by the pancreas into the blood but has no apparent function.
pancreatic trypsin inhibitor
see trypsin inhibitor.
References in periodicals archive ?
The team of Atsushi Miyajima, a professor at the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences at the University of Tokyo, and Ami Watanabe, a researcher at the institute, confirmed that the pancreatic islet functioned properly and lowered blood sugar levels to normal once transplanted into a mouse with a type of diabetes.
Pancreatic islet cell isolation starts at the point of donor selection and pancreas preservation (Figure).
It was detected in the pancreatic islets of mice and rats that dye leakage related to increased vascular permeability reached a peak 4-8 h after Sz injection, when Monastral blue B or Evans blue was serially and intravenously injected (Sandler and Jansson, 1985; Beppu et al.
17[beta]-Estradiol protects isolated human pancreatic islets against proinflammatory cytokine-induced cell death: molecular mechanisms and islet functionality.
After being granted Orphan Drug Designation by the FDA and the EMA, with the enrolment of the first patient Reparixin enters a Phase III trial investigating it in allogeneic pancreatic islet transplantation for the first time ever in the world
The agreement also grants Geron non-exclusive rights to develop research products in the following cell types: hepatocytes, neural cells, hematopoietic cells, osteoblasts, pancreatic islets and myocytes.
Denise Faustman and Chuck Coe of Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston successfully transplanted human pancreatic islets or liver cells into 25 mice after treating the tissues with antibody fragments that bind harmlessly to HLA class I antigens -- the molecules that alert the patrolling T-cells to a foreign presence.
As part of the license agreement with Tel Hashomer, the Company will have the exclusive licensing rights for regeneration of functional insulin-producing cells, thus enabling normal glucose regulated insulin secretion via cell therapy by using a therapeutic agent that efficiently converts a sub-population of liver cells into pancreatic islets phenotype and function.
Methods include pancreatic islets, endometrial organoid culture, modeling lymphatic and blood capillary patterning, precision-cut lung slices, human colon tissue in organ culture, fetal organs culture, magnetic assembly of tissue surrogates, and assembly of renal tissues by cellular self-organization.
The projects vary from examinations of the function of surface proteins and signalling pathways of neuroendocrine cells in pancreatic islets and intestine, to new studies into brown fat tissue development.
As a matter of fact, at the onset of Type 1 diabetes, the inflammatory response is directed toward pancreatic islets, which play a key role in the keeping of the autoimmune response and therefore in the onset of the pathology.