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pancreas[pan´kre-as] (pl. pancre´ata) (Gr.)
Regulation of pancreatic secretion of enzymes and bicarbonate ions is both neural and hormonal; however, the influences of the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin are more important than vagal stimulation. The entry of chyme into the small intestine causes the transformation of an inactive proenzyme, prosecretin, into active secretin that is released from the mucosa of the upper portion of the duodenum. The composition of the partially digested food entering the duodenum influences the amount of each hormone that is released and, therefore, the characteristics of the pancreatic juice.
The endocrine functions of the pancreas are related to the islets of Langerhans located on the surface of the pancreas. These small islands contain three major types of cells: the alpha, beta, and delta cells. The alpha cells secrete the hormone glucagon, which elevates blood sugar. The beta cells secrete insulin, which affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The delta cells secrete somatostatin, the functions of which are not fully understood, but it is known that it can inhibit the secretion of both glucagon and insulin and may act as a controller of metabolic processes. The somatostatin produced by the delta cells of the pancreas is the same as that produced by the hypothalamus as an inhibitor of the release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland.
pan·cre·a·ta(pan'krē-as, pan-krē-ā'tă), [TA]
pancreas/pan·cre·as/ (pan´kre-as) pl. pancre´ata [Gr.] a large, elongated, racemose gland lying transversely behind the stomach, between the spleen and duodenum. Its external secretion contains digestive enzymes. One internal secretion, insulin, is produced by the beta cells, and another, glucagon, is produced by the alpha cells. The alpha, beta, and delta cells form aggregates, called islands of Langerhans.
pan·cre·as, pl. pancreata (pan'krē-ăs, -ā'tă) [TA]
pancreas(pang'kre-as, pan') (pan-kre'at-a) plural.pancreata [ pan- + Gr. kreas, flesh, meat]
The exocrine secretion of the pancreas consists of enzymes that digest food in the small intestine, and sodium bicarbonate to neutralize hydrochloric acid from the stomach in the duodenum. See: pancreatic juice
The islets of Langerhans contain alpha, beta, and delta cells. Alpha cells secrete glucagon, which raises blood glucose; beta cells secrete insulin, which lowers blood glucose; delta cells secrete somatostatin, which inhibits the secretion of insulin, glucagon, growth hormone from the anterior pituitary, and gastrin from the stomach.
Diseases of the Pancreas
Autoimmune damage to the islets of Langerhans results in type 1 diabetes mellitus, a disease in which insulin secretion is insufficient or completely absent. Insulin-secreting tumors of the pancreas, called insulinomas, produce hypoglycemia; they are exceptionally rare. Inflammation of the pancreas, known as pancreatitis, is a common condition that often results from excessive use of alcohol or from obstruction of the exocrine secretions of the pancreas by gallstones. Pancreas divisum is a common congenital anomaly in which the main duct of the exocrine pancreas drains into an accessory pancreatic papilla instead of the duodenal papilla; it has been associated with recurring episodes of pancreatitis. See: diabetes mellitus; insulin; pancreatic function test
Willis' pancreasSee: Willis, Thomas
pancreasA dual function gland situated immediately behind the STOMACH with its head lying within the loop of the DUODENUM, into which the duct of the pancreas runs. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes capable of breaking down carbohydrates, proteins and fats into simpler, absorbable, compounds. It is also a gland of internal secretion (an endocrine gland). The endocrine element consists of the Islets of Langerhans, specialized cells that monitor blood and produce four hormones-INSULIN, GLUCAGON, SOMATOSTATIN and a pancreatic polypeptide of unknown function. See also DIABETES.
pancreasa gland situated in the mesentary of the DUODENUM of jawed vertebrates that has both an exocrine and an endocrine function. The pancreatic duct carries digestive enzymes (see PANCREATIC JUICES from the gland into the duodenum, secretion being stimulated by
Patient discussion about pancreas
Q. Can any one give me information about Carcinoma of the pancreas? What is the prognosis for carcinoma of the pancreas? I want to know as much as I can information on carcinoma of the pancreas.
Sorry for the bad news…
Q. DO YOU KNOW HOW TO STOP YOUR PANCREAS FROM SPASMS, I HAVE A HARD TIME WHEN IT SEEMS MY PANCREAS IS ACTING UP IT HURTS SO BAD AND MY LIPIDS ARE HIGH HOW DO I GET RID OF THE PAIN OR CONTROLL IT.
i think this is a very good reason to see a Doctor.
Q. hello friend i want to know how to over come deseases related to stomach and pancreas and what are the remedi