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Related to pain tolerance: pain threshold
the highest intensity of painful stimulation that a tested subject is able to tolerate.
pain tol·er·ance(pān tolĕr-ăns)
The level of pain someone is able to endure.
pain tol·er·ance(pān tolĕr-ăns)
Highest intensity of painful stimulation that a tested subject is able to tolerate.
a feeling of distress, suffering or agony, caused by stimulation of specialized nerve endings. Its purpose is chiefly protective; it acts as a warning that tissues are being damaged and induces the sufferer to remove or withdraw from the source.
All receptors for pain stimuli are free nerve endings of groups of myelinated or unmyelinated neural fibers abundantly distributed in the superficial layers of the skin and in certain deeper tissues such as the periosteum, surfaces of the joints, arterial walls, and the falx and tentorium of the cranial cavity. The distribution of pain receptors in the gastrointestinal mucosa apparently is similar to that in the skin; thus, the mucosa is quite sensitive to irritation and other painful stimuli. Although the parenchyma of the liver and the alveoli of the lungs are almost entirely insensitive to pain, the liver as an organ and the bile ducts are extremely sensitive, as are the bronchi, ureters, parietal pleura and peritoneum.
Some pain receptors are selective in their response to stimuli, but most are sensitive to more than one of the following types of excitation: (1) mechanical stress of trauma; (2) extremes of heat and cold; and (3) chemical substances, such as histamine, potassium ions, acids, prostaglandins, bradykinin and acetylcholine.
The conscious perception of pain probably takes place in the thalamus and lower centers; interpretation of the quality of pain is probably the role of the cerebral cortex.
There are some naturally occurring internal systems in the body that are known to control pain but none of them has been completely verified. One of the best known is the gate control system in which it is thought that pain impulses are mediated in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord.
pain occurring in the area between the thorax and pelvis. Manifestations vary between species. Identifiable syndromes include: (1) horse—pawing, flank watching, rolling, straddling as though to urinate, lying on the back; (2) cattle—may depress back and paddle with hindfeet but mostly arched back, grunting, immobility; (3) dogs and cats—arched back, grunting, depression, reluctance to move. Sometimes there is elevation of the hindquarters, with the chest and forelegs on the ground (the so-called 'praying dog' attitude).
Beagle pain syndrome
see beagle pain syndrome.
pathology in one area can affect the nerve supply to a distant area in which pain is experienced.
free nerve endings of tufts of fine points or buttons.
pain felt in an area distant from the site of pathology but not mediated through a common innervation. There is no evidence that referred pain occurs in animals but it seems likely on anatomical grounds.
the lowest level at which a stimulus can be applied and cause perceptible pain.
the level of stimulation at which pain becomes intolerable.