In creatures that glow in the dark, luciferins react with oxygen and an enzyme that speeds everything up to produce oxyluciferin
, which is what actually emits the light.
Adenylation of luciferin by luciferase activates the substrate for conversion to oxyluciferin
and thus the resulting luminescence is proportional to ATP concentration (Manfredi et al.
The luciferase present in the reagent uses luciferin, oxygen, and ATP as substrates in a reaction that produces oxyluciferin
and releases energy in the form of light.
FFL(Firefly luciferase) catalyzes the oxidation of luciferin in the presence of ATP, Mg2+ and molecular oxygen to produce light, oxyluciferin
, CO2 and AMP .
ATP also happens to be a key energy source in the enzymatic luciferase reaction, where the substrate luciferin is converted to oxyluciferin
plus emission of a photon.
Through a sequence of another 2 reactions, the released pyrophosphate is converted into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a cofactor for the enzyme luciferase, oxidizing luciferin to oxyluciferin
2] [light arrow] oxyluciferin
+ PPi + AMP + C02 + light.
2+], catalyzes the oxidation of luciferin by molecular oxygen, yielding the excited state of oxyluciferin
Luciferase converts the chemical luciferin into oxyluciferin
, which emits light when it decays from an excited energy state.
In the assay, ATP is consumed when firefly luciferase catalyses the oxidation of D-luciferin to adenyl-luciferin which, in the presence of oxygen, is converted to oxyluciferin
with light emission.