For each fruit with oviposition, we measured the color (RGB) of the skin, the total length (cm) of the fruit, the thickness (cm) of the flesh, the force needed to puncture the flesh (penetration force in Newtons), the amount of total solids ([degrees]Brix as a proxy for sugar content) in a drop of juice obtained from the flesh, and the section of the fruit (proximal, median, or distal) with eggs.
In both hosts, eggs were found in the fruit cavity directly beneath the oviposition site very close to the seed.
We did not count any development stage past eggs as this would make it difficult to accurately assign the date of oviposition to a specific month.
For the brown widows in our study, there was a fairly constant monthly rate of egg productivity unlike the bimodal periodicity of the uloborid spider Octonoba octonarius (MumaPeaslee and Peck 1983) or the well-known, late-summer spike of oviposition exhibited by orb weavers.
We evaluate ELMA as the number of ovipositions NO at a given distance with the statistics:
The lack of knowledge of the total number of ovipositions in the zone and period considered is not an impediment to the statistical analysis performed since the unknown variable occurs in the same form in the reference zone and in the grids, thus allowing to cancel, with a proper choice of statistics, the influence of these factors over the relative activity.
Females may lay their eggs immediately or in the months after copulation, and the oviposition
strategies seem to be related to the length of the ovipositor.
Our objective was to determine the effect of prescribed burning on Karner blues, and we used butterfly abundance surveys and oviposition
rates as measures of habitat use.
To avoid prior oviposition
experience, parasitoids to be used in experiments were not exposed to host pupae.
2]), female weight after oviposition
, spiderling weight, average of natural temperature and relative humidity during the incubation period, and the time between consecutive ovipositions
After an exposure period of 4 months, when seedlings were infested with both immature and mature lobate lac scale, they were used for parasitoid observation and oviposition
Number of Eggs per Oviposition
, Incubation Period, and Viability of Eggs